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الموضوع: تقرير عن Earth

  1. #1
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    Talking تقرير عن Earth


    السلام عليكم




    اشحاالكم؟.؟

    بغيت منكم تقرير عن الارض او عن الكواااكب الله يخليكم ساااعدووني لانه ها الاسبووع اخر اسبووع عندي


    بليييييييييييييييييييييييييييييييييييييييييييييييي ييييييييييييييييييييييييييييييز








  2. #2
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    افتراضي رد: الله يخليكم ساعدووني


    افا وين ردوودكم






  3. #3
    كــآســر آلهــم
    الصورة الرمزية amir257
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    كل إنسان معطاء .. هو إنسان محب

    افتراضي رد: الله يخليكم ساعدووني


    تقرير باي لغة ؟تبين تقرير باللغة الانكليزية؟







  4. #4
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    افتراضي رد: الله يخليكم ساعدووني


    هيه اباااه بالغه الانقليزيه






  5. #5
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    افتراضي رد: الله يخليكم ساعدووني



    السلام عليكم

    Earth

    وبالتوفيق لك

    ..






  6. #6
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    ادعولي بمعدل فوق ال 95%

    افتراضي رد: الله يخليكم ساعدووني


    و الله لو عندي كنت وضعته sorry






  7. #7
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    لـع’ـيونـِك آفج’ـر أمريـكـِآ

    افتراضي رد: الله يخليكم ساعدووني


    تقرير باللغة الانكليزية

    Earth




    Earth is the third planet from the Sun, and the largest of the terrestrial planets in the Solar System in terms of diameter, mass and density. It is also referred to as the World, the Blue Planet,[note 3] and Terra.[note 4]
    Home to millions of species,[11] including humans, Earth is the only place in the universe where life is known to exist. The planet formed 4.54 billion years ago,[12][13][14][15] and life appeared on its surface within a billion years. Since then, Earth's biosphere has significantly altered the atmosphere and other abiotic conditions on the planet, enabling the proliferation of aerobic organisms as well as the formation of the ozone layer which, together with Earth's magnetic field, blocks harmful radiation, permitting life on land.[16] The physical properties of the Earth, as well as its geological history and orbit, allowed life to persist during this period. The world is expected to continue supporting life for another 1.5 billion years, after which the rising luminosity of the Sun will eliminate the biosphere.[17]
    Earth's outer surface is divided into several rigid segments, or tectonic plates, that gradually migrate across the surface over periods of many millions of years. About 71% of the surface is covered with salt-water oceans, the remainder consisting of continents and islands; liquid water, necessary for all known life, is not known to exist on any other planet's surface.[note 5][note 6] Earth's interior remains active, with a thick layer of relatively solid mantle, a liquid outer core that generates a magnetic field, and a solid iron inner core.
    Earth interacts with other objects in outer space, including the Sun and the Moon. At present, Earth orbits the Sun once for every roughly 366.26 times it rotates about its axis. This length of time is a sidereal year, which is equal to 365.26 solar days.[note 7] The Earth's axis of rotation is tilted 23.4° away from the perpendicular to its orbital plane,[18] producing seasonal variations on the planet's surface with a period of one tropical year (365.24 solar days). Earth's only known natural satellite, the Moon, which began orbiting it about 4.53 billion years ago, provides ocean tides, stabilizes the axial tilt and gradually slows the planet's rotation. Between approximately 4.1 and 3.8 billion years ago, asteroid impacts during the Late Heavy Bombardment caused significant changes to the surface environment.
    Both the mineral resources of the planet, as well as the products of the biosphere, contribute resources that are used to support a global human population. The inhabitants are grouped into about 200 independent sovereign states, which interact through diplomacy, travel, trade and military action. Human cultures have developed many views of the planet, including personification as a deity, a belief in a flat Earth or in Earth being the center of the universe, and a modern perspective of the world as an integrated environment that requires stewardship.
    Chronology

    Main article: History of the Earth
    See also: Geological history of Earth
    Scientists have been able to reconstruct detailed information about the planet's past. The earliest dated solar system material is dated to 4.5672 ± 0.0006 billion years ago,[19] and by 4.54 billion years ago (within an uncertainty of 1%)[12][13][14][15] the Earth and the other planets in the Solar System formed out of the solar nebula—a disk-shaped mass of dust and gas left over from the formation of the Sun. This assembly of the Earth through accretion was largely completed within 10–20 million years.[20] Initially molten, the outer layer of the planet Earth cooled to form a solid crust when water began accumulating in the atmosphere. The Moon formed shortly thereafter, 4.53 billion years ago,[21] most likely as the result of a Mars-sized object (sometimes called Theia) with about 10% of the Earth's mass[22] impacting the Earth in a glancing blow.[23] Some of this object's mass would have merged with the Earth and a portion would have been ejected into space, but enough material would have been sent into orbit to form the Moon.
    Outgassing and volcanic activity produced the primordial atmosphere. Condensing water vapor, augmented by ice and liquid water delivered by asteroids and the larger proto-planets, comets, and trans-Neptunian objects produced the oceans.[24] The newly-formed Sun was only 70% of its present luminosity, yet evidence shows that the early oceans remained liquid—a contradiction dubbed the faint young Sun paradox. A combination of greenhouse gases and higher levels of solar activity served to raise the Earth's surface temperature, preventing the oceans from freezing over.[25]
    Two major models have been proposed for the rate of continental growth:[26] steady growth to the present-day[27] and rapid growth early in Earth history.[28] Current research shows that the second option is most likely, with rapid initial growth of continental crust[29] followed by a long-term steady continental area.[30][31][32] On time scales lasting hundreds of millions of years, the surface continually reshaped itself as continents formed and broke up. The continents migrated across the surface, occasionally combining to form a supercontinent. Roughly 750 million years ago (Ma), one of the earliest known supercontinents, Rodinia, began to break apart. The continents later recombined to form Pannotia, 600–540 Ma, then finally Pangaea, which broke apart 180 Ma.[33]
    Evolution of life
    Main article: Evolutionary history of life
    At present, Earth provides the only example of an environment that has given rise to the evolution of life.[34] Highly energetic chemistry is believed to have produced a self-replicating molecule around 4 billion years ago, and half a billion years later the last common ancestor of all life existed.[35] The development of photosynthesis allowed the Sun's energy to be harvested directly by life forms; the resultant oxygen accumulated in the atmosphere and formed in a layer of ozone (a form of molecular oxygen [O3]) in the upper atmosphere. The incorporation of smaller cells within larger ones resulted in the development of complex cells called eukaryotes.[36] True multicellular organisms formed as cells within colonies became increasingly specialized. Aided by the absorption of harmful ultraviolet radiation by the ozone layer, life colonized the surface of Earth.[37]
    Since the 1960s, it has been hypothesized that severe glacial action between 750 and 580 Ma, during the Neoproterozoic, covered much of the planet in a sheet of ice. This hypothesis has been termed "Snowball Earth", and is of particular interest because it preceded the Cambrian explosion, when multicellular life forms began to proliferate.[38]
    Following the Cambrian explosion, about 535 Ma, there have been five mass extinctions.[39] The last extinction event was 65 Ma, when a meteorite collision probably triggered the extinction of the (non-avian) dinosaurs and other large reptiles, but spared small animals such as mammals, which then resembled shrews. Over the past 65 million years, mammalian life has diversified, and several million years ago, an African ape-like animal gained the ability to stand upright.[40] This enabled tool use and encouraged communication that provided the nutrition and stimulation needed for a larger brain. The development of agriculture, and then civilization, allowed humans to influence the Earth in a short time span as no other life form had,[41] affecting both the nature and quantity of other life forms.
    The present pattern of ice ages began about 40 Ma and then intensified during the Pleistocene about 3 Ma. The polar regions have since undergone repeated cycles of glaciation and thaw, repeating every 40–100,000 years. The last ice age ended 10,000 years ago.[42]



    The future of the planet is closely tied to that of the Sun. As a result of the steady accumulation of helium at the Sun's core, the star's total luminosity will slowly increase. The luminosity of the Sun will grow by 10 percent over the next 1.1 Gyr (1.1 billion years) and by 40% over the next 3.5 Gyr.[43] Climate models indicate that the rise in radiation reaching the Earth is likely to have dire consequences, including the possible loss of the planet's oceans.[44]
    The Earth's increasing surface temperature will accelerate the inorganic CO2 cycle, reducing its concentration to lethal levels for plants (10 ppm for C4 photosynthesis) in 900 million years. The lack of vegetation will result in the loss of oxygen in the atmosphere, so animal life will become extinct within several million more years.[45] After another billion years all surface water will have disappeared[17] and the mean global temperature will reach 70 °C.[45] The Earth is expected to be effectively habitable for about another 500 million years,[46] although this may be extended up to 2.3 billion years if the nitrogen is removed from the atmosphere.[47] Even if the Sun were eternal and stable, the continued internal cooling of the Earth would result in a loss of much of its CO2 due to reduced volcanism,[48] and 35% of the water in the oceans would descend to the mantle due to reduced steam venting from mid-ocean ridges.[49]
    The Sun, as part of its evolution, will become a red giant in about 5 Gyr. Models predict that the Sun will expand out to about 250 times its present radius, roughly 1 AU (150,000,000 km).[43][50] Earth's fate is less clear. As a red giant, the Sun will lose roughly 30% of its mass, so, without tidal effects, the Earth will move to an orbit 1.7 AU (250,000,000 km) from the Sun when the star reaches it maximum radius. Therefore, the planet is expected to escape envelopment by the expanded Sun's sparse outer atmosphere, though most, if not all, remaining life will be destroyed because of the Sun's increased luminosity.[43] However, a more recent simulation indicates that Earth's orbit will decay due to tidal effects and drag, causing it to enter the red giant Sun's atmosphere and be destroyed.[50]

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth







  8. #8
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    افتراضي رد: الله يخليكم ساعدووني


    جزـآآك الله خير مهندسة شبكات







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