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  1. #1
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    2nd [انتهى] تقرير , بحث عن التضخم بالانكليزي Inflation


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    باللغة الانكليزيه

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  2. #2
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    التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة amir257 ; 08-01-20 الساعة 01:07 AM


  3. #3
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    السلام عليكم

    هل تقصد ؟Inflation


    Inflation is defined as the increase in the price of some set of goods and services in a given economy over a period of time. It is measured as the percentage rate of change of a price index.[1]

    Mainstream economists overwhelmingly agree that high rates of inflation are caused by high rates of growth of the money supply. Views on the factors that determine moderate rates of inflation, especially in the short run, are more varied: changes in inflation are sometimes attributed mostly to changes in the real demand or supply of goods and services, and sometimes to changes in the supply or demand for money. In the mid-twentieth century, two camps disagreed strongly on the main causes of inflation (at moderate rates): the "monetarists" argued that money supply dominated all other factors in determining inflation, while "Keynesians" argued that real demand was often more important than changes in the money supply.

    A variety of inflation measures are in use, because there are many different price indices, designed to measure different sets of prices that affect different people. Two widely known indices for which inflation rates are commonly reported are the Consumer Price Index (CPI), which measures nominal consumer prices, and the GDP deflator, which measures the nominal prices of goods and services produced by a given country or region.

    Related concepts

    Related economic and inflation concepts include: deflation, a general falling level of prices; disinflation, a decrease in the rate of inflation; hyperinflation, an out-of-control inflationary spiral; stagflation, a combination of inflation and rising unemployment; and reflation, which is an attempt to raise prices to counteract deflationary pressures.

    In classical political economy, inflation meant increasing the money supply, while deflation meant decreasing it (see Monetary inflation).[citation needed] Economists from some schools of economic thought (including some Austrian economists) still retain this usage. In contemporary economic terminology, these would usually be referred to as expansionary and contractionary monetary policies.

    Measures of inflation

    Inflation rates are calculated for many different price indices, including:

    * Consumer price indices (CPIs) which measure the price of a selection of goods purchased by a "typical consumer."
    * Cost-of-living indices (COLI) which often adjust fixed incomes and contractual incomes based on measures of goods and services price changes.
    * Producer price indices (PPIs) which measure the price received by a producer. This differs from the CPI in that price subsidization, profits, and taxes may cause the amount received by the producer to differ from what the consumer paid. There is also typically a delay between an increase in the PPI and any resulting increase in the CPI. Producer price inflation measures the pressure being put on producers by the costs of their raw materials. This could be "passed on" as consumer inflation, or it could be absorbed by profits, or offset by increasing productivity.
    * Wholesale price indices, which measure the price of a selection of goods at wholesale, prior to retail mark ups and sales taxes. These are very similar to the Producer Price Indices.
    * Commodity price indices, which measure the price of a selection of commodities. In the present commodity price indices are weighted by the relative importance of the components to the "all in" cost of an employee.
    * The GDP Deflator is a measure of the price of all the goods and services included in Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The US Commerce Department publishes a deflator series for US GDP, defined as its nominal GDP measure divided by its real GDP measure.
    * Capital goods price Index, although so far no attempt at building such an index has been tried, several economists have recently pointed the necessity to measure separately capital goods inflation (inflation in the price of stocks, real estate, and other assets).[citation needed] Indeed a given increase in the supply of money can lead to a rise in inflation (consumption goods inflation) and or to a rise in capital goods price inflation. The growth in money supply has remained fairly constant through since the 1970's however consumption goods price inflation has been reduced because most of the inflation has happened in the capital goods prices.

    Other types of inflation measures include:

    * Regional Inflation The Bureau of Labor Statistics breaks down CPI-U calculations down to different regions of the US.
    * Historical Inflation Before collecting consistent econometric data became standard for governments, and for the purpose of comparing absolute, rather than relative standards of living, various economists have calculated imputed inflation figures. Most inflation data before the early 20th century is imputed based on the known costs of goods, rather than compiled at the time. It is also used to adjust for the differences in real standard of living for the presence of technology. This is equivalent to not adjusting the composition of baskets over time.



    Issues in measuring inflation

    Measuring inflation requires finding objective ways of separating out changes in nominal prices from other influences related to real activity. In the simplest possible case, if the price of a 10 oz. can of corn changes from $0.90 to $1.00 over the course of a year, with no change in quality, then this price change represents inflation. But we are usually more interested in knowing how the overall cost of living changes, and therefore instead of looking at the change in price of one good, we want to know how the price of a large 'basket' of goods and services changes. This is the purpose of looking at a price index, which is a weighted average of many prices. The weights in the Consumer Price Index, for example, represent the fraction of spending that typical consumers spend on each type of goods (using data collected by surveying households).

    Inflation measures are often modified over time, either for the relative weight of goods in the basket, or in the way in which goods from the present are compared with goods from the past. This includes hedonic adjustments and “reweighing” as well as using chained measures of inflation. As with many economic numbers, inflation numbers are often seasonally adjusted in order to differentiate expected cyclical cost increases, versus changes in the economy. Inflation numbers are averaged or otherwise subjected to statistical techniques in order to remove statistical noise and volatility of individual prices. Finally, when looking at inflation, economic institutions sometimes only look at subsets or special indices. One common set is inflation ex-food and energy, which is often called “core inflation”.



    المصادر :
    معهد الامارات التعليمي
    www.uae7.com/vb
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia






    للمزيد :
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inflation
    http://www.westegg.com/inflation/
    http://economics.about.com/od/helpfo.../inflation.htm







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  4. #4
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  5. #5
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    افتراضي رد: [انتهى] تقرير , بحث عن التضخم بالانكليزي Inflation


    لو سمحتوا موكن مشرووووع الرياضيات
    بغيت فيه اهداف للصف الثامن موكن
    بكون لكم شاكره
    ضرووووووووووووووووووووووووووووووووووووووووووووووري






  6. #6
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    افتراضي رد: [انتهى] تقرير , بحث عن التضخم بالانكليزي Inflation


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    بس يكووووووووووووووووون اليووووووووووووووم
    حق أختي الصغيرة
    بليييييييييييييييييييييييزززززززززززززززز






  7. #7
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