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  1. #1
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    Smile برجراف عن عجائب الدنيا السبع


    أبليز أبا بروجراف عن عجائب الدنيا السبع
    بس واحد منهم مثل حدائق بابل المعلقة و الاهرامات
    ضروري بسرعة أبا حق باجر











  2. #2
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    MY SMS:

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    افتراضي رد: أبا بروجراف عن عجائب الدنيا السبع


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    يا رب و فقني

  3. #3
    مشرفة الصف الثالث
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    افتراضي رد: أبا بروجراف عن عجائب الدنيا السبع


    أختي يبت لج برجراف عن عجائب الدنيا السبع وانتي عدلي فيه لاني ما أعرف المنهج مالكم واسمحيني ..
    The most remarkable or amazing creations by mankind are included in the list of seven wonders of the world. The number 7 is said to symbolize perfection and hence is used to list the wonders. The seven wonders of the ancient times, due to destruction are no longer available for people to see. Thus, the need to find out new wonder may have arisen. The information about both ancient and new seven wonders is provided in the paragraphs below.

    Seven Ancient Wonders of the World
    Here is a list of seven ancient wonders of the world. It provides information in short about the oldest seven wonders known as of today.

    Pyramids of Egypt
    The three pyramids located in Giza near Cairo are one of the seven ancient wonders of the world. Among the three pyramids, the largest was built in ancient Egypt by a king of the fourth dynasty, called Khufu. Approximate height of the largest pyramid is 450 feet and its construction was completed in 2680 B.C.

    Temple of Artemis
    The construction of temple of Artemis had started in 350 B.C. and was built in the honor of Diana, a non-Hellenic goddess. The need to state the word, 'non-Hellenic' arises due to the fact that, the name Diana got associated with a Greek goddess later on. The Temple of Artemis which is located in Ephesis was destroyed by Goths during the invasion in 262 A.D.

    Colossus of Rhodes
    The colossus of Rhodes depicts the sun god, Helius and was built by Chares from Rhodes (formerly known as Lindus). This 105 feet statue was destroyed during an earthquake which occurred in 224 B.C. It is said that ships which came to the harbor passed between the legs of this huge statue.

    The Statue of Zeus
    The statue was built around 432 B.C. and erected in the Zeus (Jupiter) temple of Olympia. This 39 feet high statue was made of ivory and gold. Wooden frames were used in the construction by the sculptor Phidias who created this statue.

    Hanging Gardens of Babylon
    Built around 600 B.C. by Nebuchadnezzar II, The Hanging Gardens of Babylon was built by king Nebuchednezzar in 600 B.C (circa), in an attempt to please his wife, Amytis (also known as Amuhia). The Hanging Gardens which was laid above a vaulted building had the facility of raising water. The height of different terraces on the Hanging Garden varied from 75 to 300 feet.

    The Pharos of Alexandria
    The Pharos (Lighthouse) of Alexandria was built in Alexandria, Egypt on an island called Pharos. It was constructed by Soatratus, a Greek architect. Estimates of the height of this building vary between 115 m and 135 m. During an earthquake which occurred in the 13th century building got destroyed.

    The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus
    This monument was built by Queen Artemisia in the memory of king Mausolus, her husband. The mausoleum at Halicarnassus which is actually a tomb has an approximate height of 45 m.

    Seven Modern Wonders of the World
    The modern wonders include 6 new and an ancient world wonder. The Giza Pyramid complex is the only ancient wonder to feature in this list. The remaining 6 wonders are enlisted below.

    Christ the Redeemer
    A statue of Jesus Christ located in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil, Christ the Redeemer has a height of 39.6 m and is the largest 'Art Deco' statue.

    The Great Wall of China
    A series of walls built on the northern border of China, it was constructed and maintained during the period between 5th and 16th century. The Great Wall of China that we see today was constructed in the Ming dynasty. Qin Shi Huang, the first emperor of China had built a wall, the remains of which are found even today. It was built between 220 B.C. and 206 B.C.

    Taj Mahal
    It is a mausoleum built by Shah Jahan a Mughal emperor in the memory of Mumtaz Mahal, his wife. The Taj Mahal is located at Agra, India and was constructed between 1632 A.D. And 1648 A.D.

    Chichen Itza
    The word Chichen can be broken into 'chi' and 'ch'e'en', which means 'mouth' and 'well' respectively. Itza is an ethnic group of northern peninsula of Mexico. The name, Chichen Itza thus, translates as, 'at the mouth of well of Itza'. This pyramidal structure was built during the Mayan civilization.

    Petra
    A rock city carved in red stone at Jordan by Nabataens, is one of the major tourist attractions. It has been described as a "rose-red city half as old as time". It remained hidden from the western world till 1812, when Swiss explorer Johann Burckhardt discovered it. UNESCO has described it as "one of the most precious cultural properties of man's cultural heritage".

    Machu Picchu
    An archaeological site located at a height of 2,430 m in the Urubamba Valley, Peru, Machu Picchu is 80 km. away from Cuzco. The construction of Machu Picchu started in 1400 A.D. during the Inca civilization, however, the site was abandoned later on.

    Apart from the ancient and modern wonders, the seven natural wonders of the world include Mount Everest, Victoria Falls, Great Barrier Reef, Harbor of Rio de Janeiro, Paricutin Volcano, Aurora and Grand Canyon. The list of ancient and modern seven wonders of the world presents before us the richness of culture and architecture of our ancestors.





    "لا اله الا أنت سبحانك اني كنت من الظالمين "

  4. #4
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    افتراضي رد: أبا بروجراف عن عجائب الدنيا السبع


    السلام عندي اكثر من موضوع واختاري اللي يعجبك:
    There are a variety of amazing places all over the globe but the 7 wonders of the world are the most awe-inspiring. These natural wonders of the world can be found on five different continents and are magnificent in their natural beauty.
    If YOU have been to one of these Natural Wonders of the World. Don't keep it to yourself.Share Your Experience with us click on this link.


    Victoria Falls
    In Southern Africa, the Zambezi river flows across a flat plateau that extends hundreds of kilometres in all directions. It is here that one will find the largest waterfall in the world.

    Victoria Falls is one of the seven wonders of the world, stretching 1.7 kilometres wide and shared by the countries of Zambia and Zimbabwe. The falls are formed as the full width of the Zambezi river plummets into a 108 metre high cleft. During the wet season, the spray from the falls can be seen nearly 50 kilometres away, hence the name Mosi-oa-Tunya (the ‘Smoke that Thunders’).
    The falls drop into a deep, narrow chasm, which is connected to a long series ofgorges. This unique form allows the falls to be viewed face-on 60 metres away from the opposite side of the gorges.


    Northern Lights - Aurora Borealis

    Aurora Borealis, another one of the natural wonders of the world, appears in the North sky and is visible only from the Northern Hemisphere. These northern polar lights appear inadvertently from September to October and March to April. The Aurora Borealis is named after the Roman goddess of dawn, Aurora and the Greek name for the north wind, Boreas. Often seen as a greenish glow or occasionally a faint red, the lights consist of solar wind and particles that appear as “curtains” or streamers extending in an east-west direction across the sky. Shaped by the earth’s magnetic field, the lights are constantly changing and evolving. The Cree call this phenomenon the “Dance of the Spirits.”


    Grand Canyon
    Located in North America is the Grand Canyon, extending 400 kilometres through the Colorado Plateau in northwest Arizona. The canyon is 6 to 30 kilometres wide and 1.6 kilometres deep. The canyon is an erosion formed by water, ice and wind and is considered one of the 7 wonders of the world. The layers of sedimentary rock were formed over millions of years ago and provide significant insight into the earth’s geologic timescale.


    Paricutin Volcano
    In 1943 the Parîcutin Volcano erupted in the state of Michoacلn, Mexico. The first man to witness the eruption was a Tarascan Indian farmer, named Dominic Pulido. The Parîcutin is a Monogenetic cone, which means it stems from a single point of eruption. The volcano now stands at 410 metres above ground. Its hardened lava covers 16 square kilometres and its volcanic sand covers 32 square kilometres. Named after a small Tarascan Indian village, Parîcutin is now counted as one of the seven wonders of the world.


    Harbour of Rio de Janiero
    The Harbour of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil is one of the 7 wonders of the world because it holds many illusions. The Harbour can be viewed in so many ways that it appears differently and can be deceptive. For example, the mountains create an entrance into the bay and can make it appear to be a lake. However, when the Portugese explorers arrived in 1502, they believed the bay was a large river and named it Rio de Janeiro, the “River of January,” in honor of the month they arrived.


    Mount Everest
    On the edge of the Tibetan Plateau stands one of the most impressive of the 7 world wonders, Mount Everest. Like the rest of the Himalayas, Mount Everest rose from the floor of the ancient Tethys Sea. It is considered to be the highest mountain in the world and continues to grow today at the rate of a few millimetres each year. Mount Everest and the Himalayas were traditionally revered by the local people as the homes of the gods and were considered sacred.


    Great Barrier Reef
    The last of the 7 wonders of the world is the Great Barrier Reef along the northeast coast of Queensland, Australia. The Great Barrier Reef stretches 2,600 kilometres and is the world’s largest coral reef ecosystem composed of 2,900 individual reefs. It supports a variety of vulnerable and endangered species. The Great Barrier Reef covers an area of approximately 344,400 square kilometres and is the only living organism on earth that is visible from space.




    والثاني:
    The most remarkable or amazing creations by mankind are included in the list of seven wonders of the world. The number 7 is said to symbolize perfection and hence is used to list the wonders. The seven wonders of the ancient times, due to destruction are no longer available for people to see. Thus, the need to find out new wonder may have arisen. The information about both ancient and new seven wonders is provided in the paragraphs below.

    Seven Ancient Wonders of the World
    Here is a list of seven ancient wonders of the world. It provides information in short about the oldest seven wonders known as of today.

    Pyramids of Egypt
    The three pyramids located in Giza near Cairo are one of the seven ancient wonders of the world. Among the three pyramids, the largest was built in ancient Egypt by a king of the fourth dynasty, called Khufu. Approximate height of the largest pyramid is 450 feet and its construction was completed in 2680 B.C.

    Temple of Artemis
    The construction of temple of Artemis had started in 350 B.C. and was built in the honor of Diana, a non-Hellenic goddess. The need to state the word, 'non-Hellenic' arises due to the fact that, the name Diana got associated with a Greek goddess later on. The Temple of Artemis which is located in Ephesis was destroyed by Goths during the invasion in 262 A.D.

    Colossus of Rhodes
    The colossus of Rhodes depicts the sun god, Helius and was built by Chares from Rhodes (formerly known as Lindus). This 105 feet statue was destroyed during an earthquake which occurred in 224 B.C. It is said that ships which came to the harbor passed between the legs of this huge statue.

    The Statue of Zeus
    The statue was built around 432 B.C. and erected in the Zeus (Jupiter) temple of Olympia. This 39 feet high statue was made of ivory and gold. Wooden frames were used in the construction by the sculptor Phidias who created this statue.

    Hanging Gardens of Babylon
    Built around 600 B.C. by Nebuchadnezzar II, The Hanging Gardens of Babylon was built by king Nebuchednezzar in 600 B.C (circa), in an attempt to please his wife, Amytis (also known as Amuhia). The Hanging Gardens which was laid above a vaulted building had the facility of raising water. The height of different terraces on the Hanging Garden varied from 75 to 300 feet.

    The Pharos of Alexandria
    The Pharos (Lighthouse) of Alexandria was built in Alexandria, Egypt on an island called Pharos. It was constructed by Soatratus, a Greek architect. Estimates of the height of this building vary between 115 m and 135 m. During an earthquake which occurred in the 13th century building got destroyed.

    The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus
    This monument was built by Queen Artemisia in the memory of king Mausolus, her husband. The mausoleum at Halicarnassus which is actually a tomb has an approximate
    height of 45 m.
    والثالث:
    Modern Seven Wonders of The World
    It is in the nature of human race to strive for perfection and the various creations of mankind are proof of this unsatisfiable human desire to reach for the summit of the ideal and aspire for the heights of glory. Since time immemorial, man has attempted to give expression to the artistic aspect of his mind through the creation of awe-inspiring architectures that is still a source of amazement and wonder for the modern generation. Time and again, humans have referred to some such astounding man-made structures as "wonder of the world". In 2001 the Swiss corporation New7Wonders Foundation began an initiative to choose the New Seven Wonders of the World from a selection of 200 existing monuments for profit. Of the twenty-one nominated creations, seven were chosen on July 7, 2007 in Benfica's stadium in a big ceremony in Lisbon, Portugal. Read about these New Seven Wonders of the World and know about them in brief. If you enjoy reading this article on the New Seven Wonders of the World, click here and pass on this page to your friends and loved ones. Have fun!

    Chichen Itza, Yucatan (Mexico)
    One of the top tourist hotspots in the world, Chichen Itza is the most famous temple city built in Yucatan, Mexico by the Maya civilization. This impressive archaeological site served as the political and economic center of the Mayan civilization and rose to prominence in 600 AD. "Chichen Itza" literally means "At the mouth of the well of the Itza" and consists of numerous splendid stone architectures of which the magnificient Kukulkan Pyramid occupies the centrestage. Known locally as “El Castillo” (the castle), the Kukulkan Pyramid has recently been voted as one of the new seven wonders of the world and is actually a temple dedicated to Kukulkan, the Plumed Serpent. Every year on the fall and spring equinox, during the rising and setting of the sun, the side of the building casts a shadow which appears as a plumed snake along the steps of the structure.


    Machu Picchu, Cuzco (Peru)
    A marvellous Latin-American construction, the Machu Picchu is an ancient fortress city of the Incas situated in the Andes Mountains, south-central Peru. Also known as "The Lost City of the Incas", the construction of Machu Picchu began around 1430 AD during the glorious days of the Inca Empire but was abandoned in the 16th century at the time of Spanish invasion. The site was rediscovered by U.S. explorer Hiram Bingham in 1911. The architecture has been constructed with polished dry-stone walls and consists of several buildings, primary of which are the Intihuatana, the Temple of the Sun, and the Room of the Three Windows.

    Colosseum, Rome (Italy)
    The Colosseum of Rome is considered to be one of the greatest pieces of Roman architecture. A marvellous specimen of Roman engineering, the Colosseum is an elliptical amphitheatre situated in the centre of Rome. The biggest amphitheatre ever to be built in Rome, it has a capacity of 50,000 spectators and was primarily used for gladiatorial contests, royal speeches and dramatic performances. The construction of the Colosseum began between 70 and 72 AD under the emperor Vespasian and ended in in 80 AD during the regin of Titus. Some changes were, however, made later during the rule of Emperor Domitian. Made of travertine stone and iron clamps, the Colosseum today attracts millions of visitors in Rome annually. In recent years it has become a sign of the international campaign against capital punishment as well as a symbol of Roman Christianity. Every Good Friday, the Pope leads a torchlit "Way of the Cross" procession around the various levels of the amphitheatre. The image of this magnificient sttructure can also be found on the Italian version of the five-cent euro coin.

    Christ the Redeemer, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
    Undoubtedly a modern marvel, "Christ the Redeemer" ("O Cristo Redentor" in Portuguese) is a statue of Jesus Christ that weighs 635 tons, stands 98 ft (30 m) wide and 120 ft (38 m) high with its pedestal. Constructed of reinforced concrete and soapstone, this wonderful piece of architecture is located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, at the top of the Corcovado mountain (2,300 ft) in the Tijuca Forest National Park overlooking the city. It was in 1921 that the Catholic Circle of Rio proposed for the construction of the statue which recieved acceptance. The statue was designed by Heitor da Silva Costa, a local engineer, and sculpted by French sculptor Paul Landowski. The whole structure took nine years to be completed, from 1922 to 1931, and was opened on October 12, 1931. The cost of construction was $250,000, which came from donations by Brazilian Catholics, collected by the Catholic Circle of Rio. The statue depicts Jesus Christ with his head bent and arms stretched wide open, a stance that reminds of the crucifixio that the messiah underwent to propagate his message of peace to us. It is a significant symbol of Brazil's Christianity.

    Petra, Jordan
    The most popular spot of Jordan, the Petra is an ancient rock city that contains about 800 magnificient rock structures including a mausoleum, a two-storeyed temple, a shrine, a palace, general dwellings and a royal treasury - the "Khazneh el-Farun" - which is the most popular of all the bulidings. This beautiful city was carved out of rocks and inhabited by the Nabataeans more than 500 years before Christ's birth. These industrious Arab people turned it into an important business center and Petra quickly became an important trade route linking the Asian countries with the south Arabian nations Egypt, Syria, Greece and Rome. The city was later under the domination of the Crusaders which ended with the Muslim conquest. But then Petra was completely abandoned and rediscovered only in 1812 by Swiss explorer Johann Ludwig Burckhardt.

    Taj Mahal, Agra (India)
    One of the most popular Indian tourist spots and a world attraction, the Taj Mahal is a mausoleum located in Agra, India. Constructed of pure-white marble, this exquisite piece of Islamic arcitecture was created under the orders of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan who dedicated it to his departed wife, Mumtaz Mahal. The building of this structure began in 1632, and took 22 years to complete. This typical Muslim style under the orders of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan who dedicated it to his departed wife, Mumtaz Mahal. The domed memorial is flanked by two red sandstone buildings, a mosque on one side and an identical building on another. It contains the sarcophagus of Mumtaz Mahal as well as Shah Jahan. The entire process of construction involved more than 20,000 workers and the marble and semi-precious stones required for the walls were specially fetched from Rajasthan, Persia, Russia, Afghanistan, Tibet, China, and the Indian Ocean. The structure was designed by Muslim architects Abd ul-Karim Ma'mur Khan, Makramat Khan, and Ustad Ahmad Lahauri, who is thought as the main designer.
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    والرابع:
    The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World
    The ancient Greek historian Herodotus began to compile a list of the Ancient Wonders of the World as early as the fifth century BC. In the second century BC complete lists of Seven Wonders were made, although most did not contain the Pharos of Alexandria but instead included the Walls of Babylon. In the sixth century AD, the Walls of Babylon had been replaced by the Pharos, and by the Middle Ages a list was agreed upon that still exists today. These Seven Ancient Wonders are described in the paragraphs below, appearing in chronological order.
    The Pyramids of Giza
    Of all the wonders of the ancient world, the Great Pyramid is by far the most well known. The construction of pyramids in Egypt probably began about 2700 BC, when an architect named Imhotep built a step pyramid at aqqrah out of stone blocks rather than the traditional mud bricks. This pyramid was to be the tomb of Zoser, the second pharaoh of the third dynasty, who reigned form 2737-2717 BC. The design for the step pyramid was modified by other third dynasty pharaohs, and by the beginning of the fourth dynasty King Snefru constructed the first true pyramid at Dahshor. The design of the true pyramid was again used by Snefru’s son Khufu (Greek: Cheops), who built the first of the three pyramids at Giza. Khufu’s pyramid, known as the Great Pyramid, is the largest of the three, with an original height of 481 feet and a base length of 755 feet per side. The height today is only 451 feet, the result of looters stripping the outer white limestone and the slight settling of the pyramid base. Approximately 2.3 million blocks went into the Great Pyramid, each weighing about 2.5 tons. The Greek historian Herodotus wrote that the Great Pyramid was constructed over a 20 year period with the labor of about 100,000 men. The precision of the architecture is reflected in that the four corners of the base are in alignment with the four points of the compass. Some of the outer limestone still remains atop the second pyramid, which was built by Khufu’s son Khafer (Chephren), who succeeded his brother Redjedef (2613-2603 BC) to the throne. Khafer’s pyramid was 471 feet high when constructed, with the base about 707 feet per side. The Great Sphinx, located very near the pyramids, is said to have the face of Khafer and the body of a lion. The last of the immense Giza pyramids was built by Menkaure (Mycerinus), who ruled from 2578 to 2553 BC. This pyramid is the smallest of the three, reaching a height of only 218 feet and base lengths of 356 feet.
    Contrary to popular belief, the three Giza pyramids are not a collective wonder, only the Great Pyramid is endowed with this status. The incredible size and design of the pyramid, accompanied by the limited building technology of the Egyptians, has awed scientists as well as common men for thousands of years. Interestingly, it is the oldest wonder and the only one still intact today, which is why it is considered the greatest architectural feat in the history of mankind.
    The Hanging Gardens of Babylon
    The Hanging Gardens of Babylon were built at the Royal Palace of Babylonia, which was located on the Euphrates river about 50 km south of modern Baghdad, Iraq. There are two accounts as to the creation of the Gardens. The more popular belief is that King Nebuchadnezzar II (604-562 BC) of Babylonia built them to comfort his wife, Amyitis, who missed the mountain surroundings of her homeland. The other possible creator of the Gardens is Queen Sammu-ramat (Semiramis), who lived two centuries before Nebuchadnezzar. There are no known remains of the Gardens that would verify their existence. In fact, only ancient Greek historians and poets mention the Gardens; Babylonian writings say nothing of them. Many people today believe that the Hanging Gardens of Babylon never existed, that the Greek poets and historians saw them only in their own minds. However, if they did exist as the Greeks claim, they contained elevated terraces that were stepped to form mountain-like structures. Exotic plants and animals inhabited the gardens, and large irrigation systems pumped water throughout the terraces. The Greek historian Philo wrote of the Gardens:
    "The Hanging Garden has plants cultivated above ground level, and the roots of the trees are embedded in an upper terrace rather than in the earth. The whole mass is supported on stone columns... Streams of water emerging from elevated sources flow down sloping channels... These waters irrigate the whole garden saturating the roots of plants and keeping the whole area moist. Hence the grass is permanently green and the leaves of trees grow firmly attached to supple branches... This is a work of art of royal luxury and its most striking feature is that the labor of cultivation is suspended above the heads of the spectators."
    Statue of Zeus
    The Statue of Zeus was crafted over an eight year period at Olympia, Greece and was finished in 430 BC. Phidias, its creator, was perhaps the finest sculptor in all of the ancient world. A magnificent temple was constructed to house the 40 ft. tall statue. This temple attained a religious significance far greater than any other Greek temple in the world of antiquity. The magnificent statue was made primarily of gold and ivory molded over a wooden frame. The King of Gods was depicted as sitting on his throne with a symbol of Nike (victory) in his right hand and a scepter crowned by an eagle in his left. The statue was decorated with ebony, ivory, precious stones, silver, gold, sphinxes and winged symbols of victory. The Temple flourished until the fourth century AD, when it was closed after the Olympic Games were banned by the Christian Emperor Theodosius. Fires, floods and earthquakes damaged and eventually destroyed the temple in 426 AD. The statue was transported to Constantinople where it was kept until 462, when it was destroyed by a severe fire.
    Temple of Artemis
    The Temple of Artemis was built in Ephesus (modern day Selcuk, Turkey) about 550 BC. It was dedicated to Artemis (Roman: Diana), twin sister of Apollo and goddess of the hunt, childbirth, the harvest, nature, and the moon. Croesus, the King of Ancient Lydia, sponsored the construction of the temple, which was made almost entirely of marble. It contained a statue of Artemis, depicting the goddess standing straight with her hands outstretched, that was made of such precious materials as gold, silver, and ebony. The temple was also glorified by the other incredible works of art contained in it, as well as its enormous size (about 350 by 180 feet). Many ivory, bronze, and gold statues and other art works contained in the temple came from as far as India. The original temple was burned by a madman named Herostratus in 356 BC, rebuilt under Alexander the Great and again destroyed by the Goths in 262 AD. Sadly, the magnificent temple was never restored, making it, like five of the other ancient wonders, known to us only through the words of historians.
    Mausoleum of Halicarnassus
    The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus (modern Bodrum, Turkey) was the tomb of Mausolus, a tyrant King of Caria, a kingdom in the Persian Empire. It was built from 353 to 351 BC by Artemisia, the sister and widow of Mausolus. The base of the mausoleum was formed by a 60 ft. high stepped podium. A colonnade was above this, which consisted of 36 columns supporting the roof. The roof was a 24-step pyramid with a four horse marble chariot fixed at the top. The total height of the mausoleum was 140 ft., 20 ft. of which was the chariot statue. Many other statues of all sizes adorned the mausoleum both inside and out. These were constructed by the four prominent Greek sculptors of the time: Scopas, Bryaxis, Leochartes, and Timotheus. An earthquake probably partially destroyed the mausoleum around the 13th century, and by 1522, Crusaders had completely disassembled the structure and used the blocks in buildings and castles. The name of King Mausolus inspired all similar burial chambers to be known as "mausoleums".
    Colossus of Rhodes
    The Colossus of Rhodes was a 110 ft. high statue of Helios, the Greek sun god, erected near the opening of the harbor of Rhodes, an island in Greece. It was built from about 292-280 BC after a peace agreement between the Macedonians and the Rhodians. A war between those two groups had been fought, and when the Macedonians left Rhodes in peace, they left a wealth of military equipment behind. The Colossus was built at the harbor to celebrate the end of this war. It was made of bronze with a white marble base and was reinforced with iron and stone. Unfortunately, it was toppled just 56 years later by an earthquake, leaving the Colossus lying on its side, which is how it remained until 653 AD. In this year Arabs invaded Rhodes and tore apart the Colossus, selling the bronze for scrap. Many people believe the medieval myth that the Colossus straddled the harbor, but in reality it stood off to one side. The design for the Statue of Liberty was inspired by the Colossus.
    Pharos of Alexanderia
    The Pharos (lighthouse) of Alexandria was constructed by Sostratus for Ptolemy II, ruler of Egypt, in about 280 BC on the island of Pharos in the harbor of Alexandria, Egypt. This lighthouse had a square base, an octagonal midsection, and a cylindrical top. There was a large statue on the top of the Pharos, probably of Alexander the Great or Pyolemy I Soter. The total height of the structure was slightly more than 440 ft., with either a fire burning or a mirror reflecting sunlight at the top. In the Middle Ages, the Arabs who conquered Egypt neglected to maintain the lighthouse. It was rattled by earthquakes in AD 956, 1303 and 1323, and by the 15th century it was destroyed. In 1477 the Mamlk sultan Q’it By built a fort over the ruins of the Pharos, using the rubble of the once marvelous structure in walls and fortifications.


    Seven Modern Wonders of the World
    The modern wonders include 6 new and an ancient world wonder. The Giza Pyramid complex is the only ancient wonder to feature in this list. The remaining 6 wonders are enlisted below.

    Christ the Redeemer
    A statue of Jesus Christ located in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil, Christ the Redeemer has a height of 39.6 m and is the largest 'Art Deco' statue.

    The Great Wall of China
    A series of walls built on the northern border of China, it was constructed and maintained during the period between 5th and 16th century. The Great Wall of China that we see today was constructed in the Ming dynasty. Qin Shi Huang, the first emperor of China had built a wall, the remains of which are found even today. It was built between 220 B.C. and 206 B.C.

    Taj Mahal
    It is a mausoleum built by Shah Jahan a Mughal emperor in the memory of Mumtaz Mahal, his wife. The Taj Mahal is located at Agra, India and was constructed between 1632 A.D. And 1648 A.D.

    Chichen Itza
    The word Chichen can be broken into 'chi' and 'ch'e'en', which means 'mouth' and 'well' respectively. Itza is an ethnic group of northern peninsula of Mexico. The name, Chichen Itza thus, translates as, 'at the mouth of well of Itza'. This pyramidal structure was built during the Mayan civilization.

    Petra
    A rock city carved in red stone at Jordan by Nabataens, is one of the major tourist attractions. It has been described as a "rose-red city half as old as time". It remained hidden from the western world till 1812, when Swiss explorer Johann Burckhardt discovered it. UNESCO has described it as "one of the most precious cultural properties of man's cultural heritage".

    Machu Picchu
    An archaeological site located at a height of 2,430 m in the Urubamba Valley, Peru, Machu Picchu is 80 km. away from Cuzco. The construction of Machu Picchu started in 1400 A.D. during the Inca civilization, however, the site was abandoned later on.

    Apart from the ancient and modern wonders, the seven natural wonders of the world include Mount Everest, Victoria Falls, Great Barrier Reef, Harbor of Rio de Janeiro, Paricutin Volcano, Aurora and Grand Canyon. The list of ancient and modern seven wonders of the world presents before us the richness of culture and architecture of our ancestors.





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    السلام عندي اكثر من موضوع واختاري اللي يعجبك:
    There are a variety of amazing places all over the globe but the 7 wonders of the world are the most awe-inspiring. These natural wonders of the world can be found on five different continents and are magnificent in their natural beauty.

    Victoria Falls
    In Southern Africa, the Zambezi river flows across a flat plateau that extends hundreds of kilometres in all directions. It is here that one will find the largest waterfall in the world.

    Victoria Falls is one of the seven wonders of the world, stretching 1.7 kilometres wide and shared by the countries of Zambia and Zimbabwe. The falls are formed as the full width of the Zambezi river plummets into a 108 metre high cleft. During the wet season, the spray from the falls can be seen nearly 50 kilometres away, hence the name Mosi-oa-Tunya (the ‘Smoke that Thunders’).
    The falls drop into a deep, narrow chasm, which is connected to a long series ofgorges. This unique form allows the falls to be viewed face-on 60 metres away from the opposite side of the gorges.


    Northern Lights - Aurora Borealis

    Aurora Borealis, another one of the natural wonders of the world, appears in the North sky and is visible only from the Northern Hemisphere. These northern polar lights appear inadvertently from September to October and March to April. The Aurora Borealis is named after the Roman goddess of dawn, Aurora and the Greek name for the north wind, Boreas. Often seen as a greenish glow or occasionally a faint red, the lights consist of solar wind and particles that appear as “curtains” or streamers extending in an east-west direction across the sky. Shaped by the earth’s magnetic field, the lights are constantly changing and evolving. The Cree call this phenomenon the “Dance of the Spirits.”


    Grand Canyon
    Located in North America is the Grand Canyon, extending 400 kilometres through the Colorado Plateau in northwest Arizona. The canyon is 6 to 30 kilometres wide and 1.6 kilometres deep. The canyon is an erosion formed by water, ice and wind and is considered one of the 7 wonders of the world. The layers of sedimentary rock were formed over millions of years ago and provide significant insight into the earth’s geologic timescale.


    Paricutin Volcano
    In 1943 the Parîcutin Volcano erupted in the state of Michoacلn, Mexico. The first man to witness the eruption was a Tarascan Indian farmer, named Dominic Pulido. The Parîcutin is a Monogenetic cone, which means it stems from a single point of eruption. The volcano now stands at 410 metres above ground. Its hardened lava covers 16 square kilometres and its volcanic sand covers 32 square kilometres. Named after a small Tarascan Indian village, Parîcutin is now counted as one of the seven wonders of the world.


    Harbour of Rio de Janiero
    The Harbour of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil is one of the 7 wonders of the world because it holds many illusions. The Harbour can be viewed in so many ways that it appears differently and can be deceptive. For example, the mountains create an entrance into the bay and can make it appear to be a lake. However, when the Portugese explorers arrived in 1502, they believed the bay was a large river and named it Rio de Janeiro, the “River of January,” in honor of the month they arrived.


    Mount Everest
    On the edge of the Tibetan Plateau stands one of the most impressive of the 7 world wonders, Mount Everest. Like the rest of the Himalayas, Mount Everest rose from the floor of the ancient Tethys Sea. It is considered to be the highest mountain in the world and continues to grow today at the rate of a few millimetres each year. Mount Everest and the Himalayas were traditionally revered by the local people as the homes of the gods and were considered sacred.


    Great Barrier Reef
    The last of the 7 wonders of the world is the Great Barrier Reef along the northeast coast of Queensland, Australia. The Great Barrier Reef stretches 2,600 kilometres and is the world’s largest coral reef ecosystem composed of 2,900 individual reefs. It supports a variety of vulnerable and endangered species. The Great Barrier Reef covers an area of approximately 344,400 square kilometres and is the only living organism on earth that is visible from space.




    والثاني:
    The most remarkable or amazing creations by mankind are included in the list of seven wonders of the world. The number 7 is said to symbolize perfection and hence is used to list the wonders. The seven wonders of the ancient times, due to destruction are no longer available for people to see. Thus, the need to find out new wonder may have arisen. The information about both ancient and new seven wonders is provided in the paragraphs below.

    Seven Ancient Wonders of the World
    Here is a list of seven ancient wonders of the world. It provides information in short about the oldest seven wonders known as of today.

    Pyramids of Egypt
    The three pyramids located in Giza near Cairo are one of the seven ancient wonders of the world. Among the three pyramids, the largest was built in ancient Egypt by a king of the fourth dynasty, called Khufu. Approximate height of the largest pyramid is 450 feet and its construction was completed in 2680 B.C.

    Temple of Artemis
    The construction of temple of Artemis had started in 350 B.C. and was built in the honor of Diana, a non-Hellenic goddess. The need to state the word, 'non-Hellenic' arises due to the fact that, the name Diana got associated with a Greek goddess later on. The Temple of Artemis which is located in Ephesis was destroyed by Goths during the invasion in 262 A.D.

    Colossus of Rhodes
    The colossus of Rhodes depicts the sun god, Helius and was built by Chares from Rhodes (formerly known as Lindus). This 105 feet statue was destroyed during an earthquake which occurred in 224 B.C. It is said that ships which came to the harbor passed between the legs of this huge statue.

    The Statue of Zeus
    The statue was built around 432 B.C. and erected in the Zeus (Jupiter) temple of Olympia. This 39 feet high statue was made of ivory and gold. Wooden frames were used in the construction by the sculptor Phidias who created this statue.

    Hanging Gardens of Babylon
    Built around 600 B.C. by Nebuchadnezzar II, The Hanging Gardens of Babylon was built by king Nebuchednezzar in 600 B.C (circa), in an attempt to please his wife, Amytis (also known as Amuhia). The Hanging Gardens which was laid above a vaulted building had the facility of raising water. The height of different terraces on the Hanging Garden varied from 75 to 300 feet.

    The Pharos of Alexandria
    The Pharos (Lighthouse) of Alexandria was built in Alexandria, Egypt on an island called Pharos. It was constructed by Soatratus, a Greek architect. Estimates of the height of this building vary between 115 m and 135 m. During an earthquake which occurred in the 13th century building got destroyed.

    The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus
    This monument was built by Queen Artemisia in the memory of king Mausolus, her husband. The mausoleum at Halicarnassus which is actually a tomb has an approximate
    height of 45 m.
    والثالث:
    Modern Seven Wonders of The World
    It is in the nature of human race to strive for perfection and the various creations of mankind are proof of this unsatisfiable human desire to reach for the summit of the ideal and aspire for the heights of glory. Since time immemorial, man has attempted to give expression to the artistic aspect of his mind through the creation of awe-inspiring architectures that is still a source of amazement and wonder for the modern generation. Time and again, humans have referred to some such astounding man-made structures as "wonder of the world". In 2001 the Swiss corporation New7Wonders Foundation began an initiative to choose the New Seven Wonders of the World from a selection of 200 existing monuments for profit. Of the twenty-one nominated creations, seven were chosen on July 7, 2007 in Benfica's stadium in a big ceremony in Lisbon, Portugal. Read about these New Seven Wonders of the World and know about them in brief. If you enjoy reading this article on the New Seven Wonders of the World, click here and pass on this page to your friends and loved ones. Have fun!

    \
    Chichen Itza, Yucatan (Mexico)
    One of the top tourist hotspots in the world, Chichen Itza is the most famous temple city built in Yucatan, Mexico by the Maya civilization. This impressive archaeological site served as the political and economic center of the Mayan civilization and rose to prominence in 600 AD. "Chichen Itza" literally means "At the mouth of the well of the Itza" and consists of numerous splendid stone architectures of which the magnificient Kukulkan Pyramid occupies the centrestage. Known locally as “El Castillo” (the castle), the Kukulkan Pyramid has recently been voted as one of the new seven wonders of the world and is actually a temple dedicated to Kukulkan, the Plumed Serpent. Every year on the fall and spring equinox, during the rising and setting of the sun, the side of the building casts a shadow which appears as a plumed snake along the steps of the structure.


    Machu Picchu, Cuzco (Peru)
    A marvellous Latin-American construction, the Machu Picchu is an ancient fortress city of the Incas situated in the Andes Mountains, south-central Peru. Also known as "The Lost City of the Incas", the construction of Machu Picchu began around 1430 AD during the glorious days of the Inca Empire but was abandoned in the 16th century at the time of Spanish invasion. The site was rediscovered by U.S. explorer Hiram Bingham in 1911. The architecture has been constructed with polished dry-stone walls and consists of several buildings, primary of which are the Intihuatana, the Temple of the Sun, and the Room of the Three Windows.

    Colosseum, Rome (Italy)
    The Colosseum of Rome is considered to be one of the greatest pieces of Roman architecture. A marvellous specimen of Roman engineering, the Colosseum is an elliptical amphitheatre situated in the centre of Rome. The biggest amphitheatre ever to be built in Rome, it has a capacity of 50,000 spectators and was primarily used for gladiatorial contests, royal speeches and dramatic performances. The construction of the Colosseum began between 70 and 72 AD under the emperor Vespasian and ended in in 80 AD during the regin of Titus. Some changes were, however, made later during the rule of Emperor Domitian. Made of travertine stone and iron clamps, the Colosseum today attracts millions of visitors in Rome annually. In recent years it has become a sign of the international campaign against capital punishment as well as a symbol of Roman Christianity. Every Good Friday, the Pope leads a torchlit "Way of the Cross" procession around the various levels of the amphitheatre. The image of this magnificient sttructure can also be found on the Italian version of the five-cent euro coin.

    Christ the Redeemer, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
    Undoubtedly a modern marvel, "Christ the Redeemer" ("O Cristo Redentor" in Portuguese) is a statue of Jesus Christ that weighs 635 tons, stands 98 ft (30 m) wide and 120 ft (38 m) high with its pedestal. Constructed of reinforced concrete and soapstone, this wonderful piece of architecture is located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, at the top of the Corcovado mountain (2,300 ft) in the Tijuca Forest National Park overlooking the city. It was in 1921 that the Catholic Circle of Rio proposed for the construction of the statue which recieved acceptance. The statue was designed by Heitor da Silva Costa, a local engineer, and sculpted by French sculptor Paul Landowski. The whole structure took nine years to be completed, from 1922 to 1931, and was opened on October 12, 1931. The cost of construction was $250,000, which came from donations by Brazilian Catholics, collected by the Catholic Circle of Rio. The statue depicts Jesus Christ with his head bent and arms stretched wide open, a stance that reminds of the crucifixio that the messiah underwent to propagate his message of peace to us. It is a significant symbol of Brazil's Christianity.

    Petra, Jordan
    The most popular spot of Jordan, the Petra is an ancient rock city that contains about 800 magnificient rock structures including a mausoleum, a two-storeyed temple, a shrine, a palace, general dwellings and a royal treasury - the "Khazneh el-Farun" - which is the most popular of all the bulidings. This beautiful city was carved out of rocks and inhabited by the Nabataeans more than 500 years before Christ's birth. These industrious Arab people turned it into an important business center and Petra quickly became an important trade route linking the Asian countries with the south Arabian nations Egypt, Syria, Greece and Rome. The city was later under the domination of the Crusaders which ended with the Muslim conquest. But then Petra was completely abandoned and rediscovered only in 1812 by Swiss explorer Johann Ludwig Burckhardt.

    Taj Mahal, Agra (India)
    One of the most popular Indian tourist spots and a world attraction, the Taj Mahal is a mausoleum located in Agra, India. Constructed of pure-white marble, this exquisite piece of Islamic arcitecture was created under the orders of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan who dedicated it to his departed wife, Mumtaz Mahal. The building of this structure began in 1632, and took 22 years to complete. This typical Muslim style under the orders of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan who dedicated it to his departed wife, Mumtaz Mahal. The domed memorial is flanked by two red sandstone buildings, a mosque on one side and an identical building on another. It contains the sarcophagus of Mumtaz Mahal as well as Shah Jahan. The entire process of construction involved more than 20,000 workers and the marble and semi-precious stones required for the walls were specially fetched from Rajasthan, Persia, Russia, Afghanistan, Tibet, China, and the Indian Ocean. The structure was designed by Muslim architects Abd ul-Karim Ma'mur Khan, Makramat Khan, and Ustad Ahmad Lahauri, who is thought as the main designer.


    والرابع:
    The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World
    The ancient Greek historian Herodotus began to compile a list of the Ancient Wonders of the World as early as the fifth century BC. In the second century BC complete lists of Seven Wonders were made, although most did not contain the Pharos of Alexandria but instead included the Walls of Babylon. In the sixth century AD, the Walls of Babylon had been replaced by the Pharos, and by the Middle Ages a list was agreed upon that still exists today. These Seven Ancient Wonders are described in the paragraphs below, appearing in chronological order.
    The Pyramids of Giza
    Of all the wonders of the ancient world, the Great Pyramid is by far the most well known. The construction of pyramids in Egypt probably began about 2700 BC, when an architect named Imhotep built a step pyramid at aqqrah out of stone blocks rather than the traditional mud bricks. This pyramid was to be the tomb of Zoser, the second pharaoh of the third dynasty, who reigned form 2737-2717 BC. The design for the step pyramid was modified by other third dynasty pharaohs, and by the beginning of the fourth dynasty King Snefru constructed the first true pyramid at Dahshor. The design of the true pyramid was again used by Snefru’s son Khufu (Greek: Cheops), who built the first of the three pyramids at Giza. Khufu’s pyramid, known as the Great Pyramid, is the largest of the three, with an original height of 481 feet and a base length of 755 feet per side. The height today is only 451 feet, the result of looters stripping the outer white limestone and the slight settling of the pyramid base. Approximately 2.3 million blocks went into the Great Pyramid, each weighing about 2.5 tons. The Greek historian Herodotus wrote that the Great Pyramid was constructed over a 20 year period with the labor of about 100,000 men. The precision of the architecture is reflected in that the four corners of the base are in alignment with the four points of the compass. Some of the outer limestone still remains atop the second pyramid, which was built by Khufu’s son Khafer (Chephren), who succeeded his brother Redjedef (2613-2603 BC) to the throne. Khafer’s pyramid was 471 feet high when constructed, with the base about 707 feet per side. The Great Sphinx, located very near the pyramids, is said to have the face of Khafer and the body of a lion. The last of the immense Giza pyramids was built by Menkaure (Mycerinus), who ruled from 2578 to 2553 BC. This pyramid is the smallest of the three, reaching a height of only 218 feet and base lengths of 356 feet.
    Contrary to popular belief, the three Giza pyramids are not a collective wonder, only the Great Pyramid is endowed with this status. The incredible size and design of the pyramid, accompanied by the limited building technology of the Egyptians, has awed scientists as well as common men for thousands of years. Interestingly, it is the oldest wonder and the only one still intact today, which is why it is considered the greatest architectural feat in the history of mankind.
    The Hanging Gardens of Babylon
    The Hanging Gardens of Babylon were built at the Royal Palace of Babylonia, which was located on the Euphrates river about 50 km south of modern Baghdad, Iraq. There are two accounts as to the creation of the Gardens. The more popular belief is that King Nebuchadnezzar II (604-562 BC) of Babylonia built them to comfort his wife, Amyitis, who missed the mountain surroundings of her homeland. The other possible creator of the Gardens is Queen Sammu-ramat (Semiramis), who lived two centuries before Nebuchadnezzar. There are no known remains of the Gardens that would verify their existence. In fact, only ancient Greek historians and poets mention the Gardens; Babylonian writings say nothing of them. Many people today believe that the Hanging Gardens of Babylon never existed, that the Greek poets and historians saw them only in their own minds. However, if they did exist as the Greeks claim, they contained elevated terraces that were stepped to form mountain-like structures. Exotic plants and animals inhabited the gardens, and large irrigation systems pumped water throughout the terraces. The Greek historian Philo wrote of the Gardens:
    "The Hanging Garden has plants cultivated above ground level, and the roots of the trees are embedded in an upper terrace rather than in the earth. The whole mass is supported on stone columns... Streams of water emerging from elevated sources flow down sloping channels... These waters irrigate the whole garden saturating the roots of plants and keeping the whole area moist. Hence the grass is permanently green and the leaves of trees grow firmly attached to supple branches... This is a work of art of royal luxury and its most striking feature is that the labor of cultivation is suspended above the heads of the spectators."
    Statue of Zeus
    The Statue of Zeus was crafted over an eight year period at Olympia, Greece and was finished in 430 BC. Phidias, its creator, was perhaps the finest sculptor in all of the ancient world. A magnificent temple was constructed to house the 40 ft. tall statue. This temple attained a religious significance far greater than any other Greek temple in the world of antiquity. The magnificent statue was made primarily of gold and ivory molded over a wooden frame. The King of Gods was depicted as sitting on his throne with a symbol of Nike (victory) in his right hand and a scepter crowned by an eagle in his left. The statue was decorated with ebony, ivory, precious stones, silver, gold, sphinxes and winged symbols of victory. The Temple flourished until the fourth century AD, when it was closed after the Olympic Games were banned by the Christian Emperor Theodosius. Fires, floods and earthquakes damaged and eventually destroyed the temple in 426 AD. The statue was transported to Constantinople where it was kept until 462, when it was destroyed by a severe fire.
    Temple of Artemis
    The Temple of Artemis was built in Ephesus (modern day Selcuk, Turkey) about 550 BC. It was dedicated to Artemis (Roman: Diana), twin sister of Apollo and goddess of the hunt, childbirth, the harvest, nature, and the moon. Croesus, the King of Ancient Lydia, sponsored the construction of the temple, which was made almost entirely of marble. It contained a statue of Artemis, depicting the goddess standing straight with her hands outstretched, that was made of such precious materials as gold, silver, and ebony. The temple was also glorified by the other incredible works of art contained in it, as well as its enormous size (about 350 by 180 feet). Many ivory, bronze, and gold statues and other art works contained in the temple came from as far as India. The original temple was burned by a madman named Herostratus in 356 BC, rebuilt under Alexander the Great and again destroyed by the Goths in 262 AD. Sadly, the magnificent temple was never restored, making it, like five of the other ancient wonders, known to us only through the words of historians.
    Mausoleum of Halicarnassus
    The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus (modern Bodrum, Turkey) was the tomb of Mausolus, a tyrant King of Caria, a kingdom in the Persian Empire. It was built from 353 to 351 BC by Artemisia, the sister and widow of Mausolus. The base of the mausoleum was formed by a 60 ft. high stepped podium. A colonnade was above this, which consisted of 36 columns supporting the roof. The roof was a 24-step pyramid with a four horse marble chariot fixed at the top. The total height of the mausoleum was 140 ft., 20 ft. of which was the chariot statue. Many other statues of all sizes adorned the mausoleum both inside and out. These were constructed by the four prominent Greek sculptors of the time: Scopas, Bryaxis, Leochartes, and Timotheus. An earthquake probably partially destroyed the mausoleum around the 13th century, and by 1522, Crusaders had completely disassembled the structure and used the blocks in buildings and castles. The name of King Mausolus inspired all similar burial chambers to be known as "mausoleums".
    Colossus of Rhodes
    The Colossus of Rhodes was a 110 ft. high statue of Helios, the Greek sun god, erected near the opening of the harbor of Rhodes, an island in Greece. It was built from about 292-280 BC after a peace agreement between the Macedonians and the Rhodians. A war between those two groups had been fought, and when the Macedonians left Rhodes in peace, they left a wealth of military equipment behind. The Colossus was built at the harbor to celebrate the end of this war. It was made of bronze with a white marble base and was reinforced with iron and stone. Unfortunately, it was toppled just 56 years later by an earthquake, leaving the Colossus lying on its side, which is how it remained until 653 AD. In this year Arabs invaded Rhodes and tore apart the Colossus, selling the bronze for scrap. Many people believe the medieval myth that the Colossus straddled the harbor, but in reality it stood off to one side. The design for the Statue of Liberty was inspired by the Colossus.

    Pharos of Alexanderia
    The Pharos (lighthouse) of Alexandria was constructed by Sostratus for Ptolemy II, ruler of Egypt, in about 280 BC on the island of Pharos in the harbor of Alexandria, Egypt. This lighthouse had a square base, an octagonal midsection, and a cylindrical top. There was a large statue on the top of the Pharos, probably of Alexander the Great or Pyolemy I Soter. The total height of the structure was slightly more than 440 ft., with either a fire burning or a mirror reflecting sunlight at the top. In the Middle Ages, the Arabs who conquered Egypt neglected to maintain the lighthouse. It was rattled by earthquakes in AD 956, 1303 and 1323, and by the 15th century it was destroyed. In 1477 the Mamlk sultan Q’it By built a fort over the ruins of the Pharos, using the rubble of the once marvelous structure in walls and fortifications.


    Seven Modern Wonders of the World
    The modern wonders include 6 new and an ancient world wonder. The Giza Pyramid complex is the only ancient wonder to feature in this list. The remaining 6 wonders are enlisted below.

    Christ the Redeemer
    A statue of Jesus Christ located in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil, Christ the Redeemer has a height of 39.6 m and is the largest 'Art Deco' statue.

    The Great Wall of China
    A series of walls built on the northern border of China, it was constructed and maintained during the period between 5th and 16th century. The Great Wall of China that we see today was constructed in the Ming dynasty. Qin Shi Huang, the first emperor of China had built a wall, the remains of which are found even today. It was built between 220 B.C. and 206 B.C.

    Taj Mahal
    It is a mausoleum built by Shah Jahan a Mughal emperor in the memory of Mumtaz Mahal, his wife. The Taj Mahal is located at Agra, India and was constructed between 1632 A.D. And 1648 A.D.

    Chichen Itza
    The word Chichen can be broken into 'chi' and 'ch'e'en', which means 'mouth' and 'well' respectively. Itza is an ethnic group of northern peninsula of Mexico. The name, Chichen Itza thus, translates as, 'at the mouth of well of Itza'. This pyramidal structure was built during the Mayan civilization.

    Petra
    A rock city carved in red stone at Jordan by Nabataens, is one of the major tourist attractions. It has been described as a "rose-red city half as old as time". It remained hidden from the western world till 1812, when Swiss explorer Johann Burckhardt discovered it. UNESCO has described it as "one of the most precious cultural properties of man's cultural heritage".

    Machu Picchu
    An archaeological site located at a height of 2,430 m in the Urubamba Valley, Peru, Machu Picchu is 80 km. away from Cuzco. The construction of Machu Picchu started in 1400 A.D. during the Inca civilization, however, the site was abandoned later on.

    Apart from the ancient and modern wonders, the seven natural wonders of the world include Mount Everest, Victoria Falls, Great Barrier Reef, Harbor of Rio de Janeiro, Paricutin Volcano, Aurora and Grand Canyon. The list of ancient and modern seven wonders of the world presents before us the richness of culture and architecture of our ancestors.





    KEEP CALM AND LOVE BARCELONA





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