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  1. #1
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    افتراضي تقرير عن المجهر .. microscope


    بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم ..




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    Biologists need to take note of the cells and their parts through the study of living organisms. That the development of new tools and techniques can be biologists to uncover the deepest secrets of life.

    Microscopes

    Microscopes is one of the devices most widely used in biology. Microscope and the microscope is a device that gives us an enlarged image of something that we're looking at it. Biologists use microscopes to study living organisms and cells, and smaller parts that can not be seen with the naked eye. Grow something microscopes reveal the details at the same time. Zoom Magnification is to increase the apparent size of something. The distinction Resolution is the ability to show detail. Microscopes vary in the ability of zoom and discrimination that specializes in them.

    Optical microscopes

    Know the parts of the microscope from here




    To see the micro-organisms and cell biologists usually use a microscope optically complex (m. Z) Compound light microscope as shown in the picture. To see the light microscope by the boat, put the sample on a glass slide, but the sample must be thin enough to become transparent, or be very young. Put the slide that holds the sample over a hole in the table microscope. It is the light source, a mirror or a lamp is installed at the base, bring light to the top. Light passes through the sample and through the lens of Object Oriented Objective lens placed directly above the sample, and continue growing the lens OO that sample. After that each photo is dropped across the Casbah Body tube around the lens kind Ocular lens installed in a piece of eye Eyepiece where you grow the most. Most optical microscopes at a group Lenses with different degrees of zoom. You can select the lens and focus in the field of vision through the Department of nasal piece Nosepiece. The lens OO major compound light microscope and a picture of a typical magnification of 40 times the size of the original sample. Zoom factor called this capacity Power of magnification zoom lens OO, which stands for in this situation with a 40 × (× mean number of times magnification) On the other hand kind magnify the sample 10 times (10 ×). To calculate the microscope zoom capability, you must hit the zoom capability OO big lens (40 × in this case) the ability of the zoom lens in kind (10 ×). Be the sum total zoom capability is equal to 400 ×.


    Electron microscopes


    Determine the physical characteristics force discrimination in optical microscopes. If you exceed the capacity of 2000 × magnification picture becomes the sample is not clear or blurry. To examine samples is smaller than the cells, as components of cells or viruses, scientists may choose one of the few types of electron microscopes. In the electron microscope Electron microscope is a bunch of electrons, rather than a beam of light, giving an enlarged image of the sample. Electron microscopes is much stronger than optical microscopes. And some of the electron microscopes that appear until the vicinity of atoms separate in a sample, the electron microscope in force Transmission electron microscope (m. A. N) to send a bunch of electrons through the slice sample is very thin, with the lens magnetic magnification image and set the vision on a screen or panel photography, producing a picture of this process, such as those you see in a picture. Bigger force microscope NDRC 200000 things even once, but the disadvantages that can not be used to view samples she was alive.
    Organism itself, which in the image (a), but under the scanning electron microscope
    Organism itself, which in the image (a), but under the scanning electron microscope

    The scanning electron microscope Scanning electron microscope (m. A. M) Vezodna amazing three-dimensional images such as those you see in the image b. No need to cut the sample into slices in order to see, but enough to spray paint the ****l thin. Send a package of electrons over the surface of the sample, causing the paint to the ****l launch a barrage of electrons towards the fluorescent screen or photographic plate, giving a picture of the surface of the thing. Electronic scanner microscopes can enlarge objects up to 100000 times, but can not be used to view the samples they are still alive, as is the case for e-force microscope.



    Parts of the microscope


    Follow the following image to see parts:



    * Lens kind and is installed in the upper limb of a cylinder of ****l in the top part of the microscope and through this lens of the eye to look inside to see the sample to be tested. (1)

    * Lenses and are installed on a disk moving the lower end of the ****l cylinder and be close to the object to be enlarged, so called object-oriented lens, and the number of these lenses ranged between (2-4) and lenses ranging in power enlarge. (3)

    * Two officers, one for the approximate settings and the other for fine-tuning can be Tdoerhma to raise or lower the lens on the sample studied to clarify after choosing the magnification power required in any of the four lenses. (4)

    * Table (theater) and a flat surface can be raised or lowered or is constant and there in the middle slot and Mascan Madenian to install a slide and placed the sample to be magnified. (6)

    * Mirror and there at the bottom of the table and function to direct the light carried out of the hole and put on the table are installed on the sample slide, and there are some microscopes are equipped with an electric lamp instead of a mirror

    References

    www.uae7.com/vb
    google.com

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    محمد رسول الله



  2. #2
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    افتراضي رد: تقرير عن المجهر .. microscope


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  3. #3
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    افتراضي رد: تقرير عن المجهر .. microscope


    الله يسلمج من كل شر

    بالتوفيق





    لا إله ألا الله
    محمد رسول الله



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