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The Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser, a central role in Arab-Israeli conflict, alleging the Arab nationalist movement that aimed to Arab unity and the defeat of Israel, and fought the wars that broke out between Arabs and Israel in the years 1948, 1956 and 1967, and the War of Attrition 1968-1970.
Birth and upbringing
Gamal Abdel Nasser was born in the neighborhood of Alexandria Backus in 1918 for a family belonging to the village once built in Assiut in Upper Egypt, and his father worked in the Postal Service.
Beauty in the field of education
Go Gamal Abdel Nasser in the primary stage of education among many primary school where his father was a permanent move by virtue of his job at the Postal Service, ending his primary education in the village of Khatatba a village in the Nile Delta, and then traveled to Cairo to complete high school
Maturity of Gamal Abdel Nasser early, in high school leadership was in his blood and leadership in nature and it was clear that the amount prepares for a role, he believed that he could do something, and perhaps the meaning is paid to the prospect of political parties and bodies to examine to what extent can these parties the performance of duty National Bible, he believed in himself and in Egypt and read voraciously and was a wonderful loving the history of heroes and leaders and editors of the country and was interested in heroes of Islam and figures History
At nine-year-old tried to join the military academy, but his attempts failed, he chose to study law at the Faculty of Law, University of Fouad (now Cairo). When the War College has announced its acceptance of a special payment made a war criminal and succeeded this time, where he graduated a second lieutenant in 1938
When he moved to Cairo, he found himself within the general movement speaks protest and complain about the reality of the situation which has reached the Egyptian man, on one occasion participated in a march against the British and was arrested with a group of colleagues and the experience was the second time in his life after his father's death, many reading and not limited to writers and thinkers, the Egyptians, but surpassed the French intellectuals and the lives of many political figures that have influenced the course of history, influenced by Mustafa Kamel, Sa'ad Zaghloul, also fueled poems Ahmed Shawki, he has a passion for Mighty life and concepts of honor, pride, dignity and freedom, which led him to the conviction that work for change and develop this passion to the practice derives from the Revolution of the Egyptian people, the ingredients credibility, could Gamal Abdel Nasser to get from the circumstances of this stage a polarization within the ranks of officers and soldiers when he joined them after graduating from the Military Academy, and his effort did not end in 1951 so that was the nucleus Free Officers, was formed, and became the Free Officers are secret cells on top of each one of them an officer in the armed forces
Was quick to Gamal Abdel Nasser after the events of the channel and a fire in Cairo in January 1952 to develop a course of action is concentrated in the six points are: -
1 - The liquidation of colonialism and its clients.
2 - the liquidation of feudalism, which has a very wide territory and put an end to the feudal control in Vlahihm.
3 - put an end to the domination of capital to govern.
4 - to achieve social justice.
5 - Establishment of a national army strong.
6 - Establishment of a sound democratic system
Gamal Abdel Nasser married at an early age and gave birth to four boys.
Intellectual trends of Gamal Abdel Nasser
Secure Abdel Nasser socialist thought, especially in the economic sphere, take a number of decisions changed from the point of social life in Egypt, was the most important decisions of nationalization and redistribution of agricultural property between smallholders. In the political sphere dominated totalitarian thought to govern, and did not pay any attention to the issue of democracy, was the Socialist Union Party is the sole, to prevent the opposition parties, and appeared centers of power, and committed numerous, serious abuses of human rights. On the Arab level Nasser promoted the idea of Arab nationalism, and it called for Arab unity, and try to apply that with Syria, but his attempt failed. Care and support of national liberation movements, particularly in Algeria and Yemen.
Military and political career
The work of Gamal Abdel Nasser in Mnaqbad Upper Egypt at the graduation, then moved in 1939 to the Sudan and was promoted to the rank of lieutenant, then work in the area of El Alamein in Western Sahara and was promoted to the rank of Iozbashi (Captain) in September 1942 and took command of elements of one of military teams working there . In the following year was commissioned to teach at the Military Academy and remained for three years when he enrolled at the Staff College, and graduated on 12 May 1948, took over the teaching of the Administrative Officer and was promoted to the rank of formulated and Bkbai (submitted), has been the Staff College, that he with a group of Free Officers revolution on July 23, 1952.
Beauty and the war of 1948
Nasser participated in the 1948 war, especially in Ashdod and Njba and Falluja, and perhaps the Arab defeat and the establishment of the State of Israel has paid Abdul Nasser and his fellow officers for a revolt July 23, 1952.
Was Nasser played an important role in the formation and leadership of a company in the Egyptian army, calling itself the Free Officers, where it met the first cell in his home Bkopri dome in the July 1949 meeting brought together officers from different affiliations and persuasions, was elected 1950 Chair of the Foundation for Free Officers . When the expansion of the organization of the Free Officers elected leadership of the organization and Abdel Nasser elected Chairman of that Committee, and was joined by Major General Mohammed Naguib, who became the first president of the Republic in Egypt after the success of the revolution.
Revolution July 23, 1952
Successfully organized the Free Officers on the night of July 23, 1952 in a military coup was launched in the beginning of the army, then known then as "the revolution of 23 July." This movement resulted in the expulsion of King Farouk and end the monarchy and declared a republic. Having stabilized the situation of the revolution was the formation of a steering committee, the Free Officers and became known as the Revolutionary Command Council and was composed of 11 members under the chairmanship of Staff Major General Mohamed Naguib war.
President of the Republic
Soon bear the difference between Nasser and Naguib ultimately resulting in a waiver of the Revolutionary Command Council Mohamed Naguib from all his posts and placed under house arrest, and the Leadership Council headed by Abdel-Nasser, the functions of the President of the Republic, then became in June 1956 elected president of the republic after receiving in a referendum on the proportion of 99.8% of the total votes at the time the amount of five million votes.
Nationalization of the Suez Canal
The most important decisions taken by Gamal Abdel Nasser's nationalization of a global resolution of the Suez Canal on July 26, 1956, and the decision was the cause of the tripartite aggression against Egypt.
Tripartite aggression on Egypt
Launched Britain, France and Israel attack on Egypt's decision to nationalize the Suez Canal Company, where he began the attack by bombing an Israeli intensive areas Alkundtlp and Ras Negev Tauber, after the popular resistance and violent intervention of Russia pulled out of British and French troops from Egypt on 22 December 1956 and were followed after that of Israel, The increased popularity of Abdel Nasser, internally and externally after the war.
Unity with Syria
Nasser declared the union of Egypt and Syria launched by the United Arab Republic February 22, 1958, but the Union did not last long once again to art, the two countries in 1961, Egypt continued to retain the title of the United Arab Republic.
Supporting the liberation movements
Abdel Nasser supported the national liberation movements in the Arab and African countries, especially the Algerian revolution in the period from 1954 to 1962 and the revolution in Yemen in 1962.
The defeat of Egypt, Jordan and Syria in 1967
Harassed by Israeli forces, Syria in May 1967, Egypt declared public mobilization in the armed forces. Escalated rapidly and so was the spark that set off the war decision by President Gamal Abdel Nasser closes the Straits of Tiran in the Red Sea to Israeli shipping, whereupon the Israeli offensive, violent June 5, 1967, which inflicted a major defeat in Egypt, Jordan and Syria, occupying the Sinai and the Golan Heights and the West Bank and East Jerusalem, Abdel Nasser announced to bear the responsibility to defeat the Egyptian armed forces and the loss of Sinai announced his resignation, but the Egyptian masses came out in Bat demonstrations demanding his resignation and to prepare the country to wipe out the effects of defeat, had already returned once again to hold office.
War of Attrition
Care Abdel Nasser to rebuild the Egyptian armed forces, and entered into a war of attrition with Israel in 1968, and was the most work in this period to build a network of air defense missiles.
View Secretary of State William Rogers political initiative to encourage the Arab countries and Israel on a ceasefire and start peace talks under the auspices of the Personal Representative of the Secretary-General of the United Nations Gunnar Jarring in order to implement Security Council resolution 242 calling for Israeli withdrawal from lands it occupied in the June 5, 1967 . Agreed with Egypt and Jordan on the initiative and Oalmta Washington this on 8/7/1970, but many Arab countries rejected the plan, including the Palestine Liberation Organization, which issued a statement on 07.25.1970 it considered that any initiative on the basis of Resolution 242 is an implicit recognition of the State of Israel , and a final waiver from the goal of the Liberation of Palestine occupied in 1948. And interpreted the text of the FAO Council resolution 242 which calls for Israel's withdrawal from territories occupied in 1967 before a sellout in Jerusalem, and interpreted the text as well as the restoration of the cease-fire that the prohibition of the activity of the Palestinian resistance.
Gamal Abdel Nasser and the Question of Palestine
Gained 23 July revolution led by Gamal Abdel Nasser, the Arab - Zionist important feature, recent developments have demonstrated that experienced by today's true story of the conflict, namely that the nature of the conflict of civilization. According to Abdel Nasser, said that conflict on the land of Palestine was and remains the conflict and the existence and struggle for survival between the Arab nation by the forces of colonization by another, and that Arab-Israeli conflict was due to the contradiction between the objectives of the Arab nation wishing to be free of political and social and colonialism that seeks to control and further exploitation. It was a weapon of colonialism against the Arab nation is a weapon of shredding and after two world wars and with the growing belief in unity of colonialism added weapon to the weapon of intimidation, disruption and took advantage of the mythical claims of the Zionist movement. Thus peace and our homelands of the Arab nation booty free-for-Zionism in order to be devoted to tearing of the Arab nation and to continue Tkhuynha and continuously through the creation of several in the heart of the threat as well as the consequent depletion of the possibilities of the Arab power.
Has exacerbated the decline of the Arab nation, colonization of the emergence of the Progressive Movement of Arab colonialism which led to the violent and scary adventures expressed itself in 1967, known as the Six Day War, which is a prelude to war is over.
This makes it clear to us how Abdel-Nasser realized the nature of the Arab - Zionist conflict is that this fateful conflict and national and civilization, and this conviction is treated Abdel Nasser of this conflict and interact with events.
After 1948, tried to exploit the tragedy of colonialism that has befallen the Arab nation in Palestine war to broadcast the hearts of the Arabs in the spirit of weakness and defeat, but vibrant Arab nationalism in the heart of every Arab who was a lookout for them. Although the enemies have prevailed in the 1948 war on the people of Palestine, the Arab nationalism also won because every Arab is taken deep inside that he must be united with his brother in order to maintain the Arab nation from extinction, fragmentation and loss. The tragedy of Palestine for the Arabs to victory it Ocaln fire of Arab nationalism in the breasts.
Gamal Abdel Nasser believed that colonialism has Oqan in the heart of the Arab world for the Eradication of Arab nationalism and to destroy this nation and prevent it from building itself socially, economically and diplomatically. But you have succeeded? The determination of our people to remove the occupation of part of the Arab homeland is Palestine is a generalization of the liquidation of the pocket of the most dangerous pockets of aggression against the critical struggle of peoples.
Gamal Abdel Nasser was believed that the settlement of Arab-Israeli conflict is to restore the rights of the Palestinian people and the restoration of the occupied Arab territories in 1967 and to suspend the Israeli threat within the Partition Resolution by the General Assembly of the United Nations in November 1947, as the face of the Israeli presence is a process of long-term .
It was after a setback in June out of the Palestinian people to take the lead himself and defend his case himself. And launched the Palestinian resistance movement and was able to turn the combativeness of the Palestinian people from a nation of refugees to the people of the fighters were able to Palestinian action to impose himself on the world.
Was Gamal Abdel Nasser's role in supporting the Palestinian resistance, he says, "No one can deny the role of the masses of the Palestinian people living under occupation and adds there is no standard or precise than the position taken by any individual or any group or government on the issue of Palestinian resistance and the news of the Palestinian people . In our view, attempts are now the enemy and the aggression to drive a wedge between the comrades of the battle one partner in reality and destiny, and we see the need for such attempts but at the same time, we know that our brothers feel the same as what we see. that awareness of the necessity of such attempts but at the same time, we know that our brothers see that the same as what we see. that the exigencies of the situation awareness of the deeper and more comprehensive than we imagine, and they have the ability to surround all of these attempts and accounted for.
"The fiduciary duty requires us to define our position as follows: It has been our position always said that the Palestinian resistance is one of the most important phenomena of health in our struggle Arab, a practical embodiment of the transition has been greatly on the Palestinian people under the pressure of oppression and turned him from a nation of refugees to the people combatants. " Gamal Abdel Nasser was believed that not all of us an alternative to fighting for the right that we require and the peace that we seek. Was always a distinction between fighting and fighting house says: "fighting stray bullets displays Brother Force honor of his brother and fighting .. fighting crime."
The setback June 5 June 1967 is the end, the original phase of Gamal Abdel Nasser, the political circumstances surrounding the event and the former has confirmed that the regime of Gamal Abdel Nasser, after all these achievements, both internally and externally is required to stand when alone and returned to within the home. It is here agreed international wills differentiated in rhythm Gamal Abdel Nasser. They prepared the stage and bodies of the place well for the reception and reality in 1967.
On May 13, information was received from the Soviet Union to the Presidency that Israel has massed in front of huge crowds to the Syrian front to assault and capture of Damascus in order to change the rules of the Progressive. And renewed the Soviet Union's information as the date for the Israeli attack between 05/17 to 05/21/1967 were selected by Israel in 1967 to be a year for its aggression on the Arab countries for several reasons:
First: Israel's readiness to complete the military's preoccupation with the Egyptian special forces in the war in Yemen. Second: Be sure to Israel from U.S. support is not limited to Mthaltha: the deterioration of U.S. relations with Arab countries, the progressive and third: the disintegration of the Arab ranks by the war in Yemen and the resultant conflicts between Arab states and the ineffectiveness of the conferences of the Arab Summit and the Fourth: the creation of world public opinion and his conviction that view the Israeli used in decisions of the Arab summit conference material to them. Fifth, Israel has been suffering from economic problems and a large fiscal deficit and the war is the only way to salvation from these problems.
Israel headed to Syria to be Dhiriatha for its aggression against Arab states, particularly Syria in one of the three countries working to divert the Jordan River in the territory to spoil the Israeli projects in this regard. Syria is also providing assistance to liberation movements against Israel, in addition, there is Israel's ambitions for the Syrian plateau of the strategic ******** of threatened Israel's security.
Israel began threatening Syria and the occupation of Gaza, Damascus and made its first major offensive in early 1967. In May, Israel declared a state of emergency partial forcing Egypt to hasten to help Syria massing troops in the Sinai. Then requested May 16, the United Nations assembly of its troops, which occupies checkpoints on the Egyptian-Israeli border in the Gaza Strip. But the United Nations decided to withdraw the emergency forces of Sharm el-Sheikh and entered the Egyptian forces. On May 23, 1967, Egypt announced its decision not to allow Israeli ships or those carrying goods to pass through Israel's strategy in the Gulf of Aqaba. Here, the Israeli military establishment decided to accelerate the need to wage war before you can Egyptian forces in the immunization coverage in their new positions and take advantage of this proactive.
On May 30 signed a defense pact between Egypt and Jordan. The Israeli response is to form a coalition government entered all Israeli parties. On June 4, 1967 held by the Israeli Cabinet met and decided the war. The next day, which on June 5, Israel has hit the Egyptian air bases, and so caught the war. Israel continued the war until it reached the waters of the Suez Canal on the Egyptian front and occupied the West Bank and the Jordan River became separated from each other and the rest of the Jordanian territories as occupied Syrian heights and became the road to Damascus is open.
Was that war has serious consequences in the Arab-Israeli conflict. The crash was the armed forces of three Arab countries and Israel arrived to the geographical situation and strategic depth that you want.
Carrying President Gamal Abdel Nasser responsibility for the setback and courage of the men announced to step down. But the Egyptian people out of epic proportions, on 9 and 10 July and announced that he will continue fighting with Gamal Abdel Nasser was adjusted to the end of President Gamal Abdel Nasser for his resignation, declaring that he will stand in the place where the leader asked the people to stand in it. Foote and the Egyptian people and its leader the opportunity to those who seek.
And Gamal Abdel Nasser began work in two ways: first: by the rebuilding of the armed forces in the belief that what was taken by force can be restored only by force and the second through the diplomatic sponsor Security Council Resolution 242 to resolve conflict in the Middle East. The story of a war of attrition known to all and good diplomacy to resolve the problem of the Middle East and the application of Security Council resolutions also known.
But destiny did not give President Gamal Abdel Nasser, to witness the liberation of land left in 09/28/1970 Gamal Abdel Nasser for fifty-two years. Left as he tried to stop the bloodshed between brothers in Jordan, and was the last achievements of the leader Gamal Abdel Nasser the Arab level. Gone, leaving behind the issues and conflicts and achievements have not yet been resolved. At his funeral walked several million Egyptian people and the Arab world has stunned the funeral, friends and enemies alike. Out of the Egyptian people in their millions to mourn himself before aware Abdel Nasser was the leader Gamal Abdel Nasser, all what is and what a dream it is not complete and a great national project is not completed as well. His funeral was an expression of Jiacha scale of the disaster that will occur in the coming days.
Cried the people of Egypt Gamal Abdel Nasser, bitterly, and so did the Arabs and the civilized world as a whole. So did the world and will continue to Nbugeh the greater the adversity and hardship intensified and hearts reached to the throats.