Industry First definition:
Industry in the broad sense a change in the form of raw materials to increase their value, and make them more suited to human needs and requirements.
And highlights the importance of the industry: in the fact that raises the standard of living of peoples, including the money generated, and the availability of well-being of man Bmguetnyatea different, so are an important means to absorb the excess labor needed for agriculture and other services.
With the contribution of industry to develop other economic activities, such as agriculture and trade, including transport of raw materials to offer, such as fertilizers, agricultural machinery, materials and energy, and means of modern transport.
Second, sections of industries:
Industries are divided into three main sections:
1 - primitive industries.
2 - small industries.
3 - modern industries.
4 - primitive industries:
Handicrafts, which are those that do not rely on machines or any of the other driving forces, but its reliance on locally available raw materials, and manual skill acquired, has been practiced by man since ancient times, and still practiced in many parts of Africa and South America and Asia.
Among these industries: Manufacturing pottery, and leather tanning and preserving of meat in a drying and others.
Some of these industries primitive handicraft practiced in the countries that made a means to increase family income, such as the carpet industry in Turkey, Iran, and industry artifacts of different, and drilling for minerals in Egypt, Algeria, and the games industry in Switzerland, Italy, and Japan.
Such handicrafts of the ancient crafts of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, some of which still exists even now, as an industry leather shoes, and Mashaleh Sufism.
2 - small industries:
These are industries do not turn, or change much the image of the raw material, and the most important characteristic of these industries that depend on local raw materials as they do not require large capital or advanced skill.
The aim of these industries to modern service industry, like keeping fruits and vegetables for export, or to lose weight to prepare them for transport, Kkps cotton, timber and Tkulaimha.
Among the most important industries in the Kingdom of simple canning industry dates, as is the case in the city of the Prophet, and Qassim, Al-Ahsa, and grain milling industry.
3 - modern industries:
The industries that rely on the great potential in terms of capital, labor, raw materials, and expertise minute, has appeared these industries after the discovery of steam power and the expansion of their use in the management of machinery and in the eighteenth century AD, in addition to expansion in the use of coal in industry, especially steel and ****ls led to a development in the different means of transportation. And despite the fact that Western Europe and the United States Ahtkrta modern industries but that did not last long, spreading later in Russia, Japan, China and Eastern Europe and some countries in the Islamic world to varying degrees.
The most important elements of the industry
The industry is to flourish and must have been Tuaraadd of the most important ingredients:
1 - of capital.
2 - raw materials.
3 - dynamics.
4 - the workforce.
5 - a market.
6 - transport and communications.
1 - Capital:
Use of modern machinery industries complex expensive costs, and use large amounts of fuel, and large numbers of workers, all of which require the availability of capital.
And available capital in some countries and less in the other, and can be transmitted from one country to another where there are adequate safeguards and his companions attractive profits.
2 - raw materials:
First are those materials that change the shape of the industry to suit human needs and requirements.
These materials are divided into:
(A) the raw materials of vegetable origin, such as wood, cotton, rubber, sugarcane, wheat, and so on.
(B) animal raw materials, such as leather, wool, dairy, and meat.
(C) raw material ****l, such as iron, copper, and (bauxite) and gold, and so on.
It can be some of the industries of raw materials for other industries more sophisticated, the so-called semi-manufactured materials such as oils, and textile yarn, and the masses of cast iron, and petroleum products from refineries, and so on.
This and the availability of raw materials and cheap-eighths of them, and diversity, and ease of use a major role in the industry and its success.
3 - the driving forces:
The backbone of modern industry, especially coal, oil, hydro, and different industries in terms of consumption of energy resources, as well as how it relates to areas such resources, Coal - for example - centered around the steel mills, and steel in Europe as a result of the heavy weight and difficult to move, on the contrary of oil that can be transferred easily; therefore did not affect the redistribution of industrial areas.
The estimated driving forces, and the fuel used in the world are as follows: 50% coal, oil and petroleum products 42%, other powers, the most important hydropower 8%.
4 - labor:
The availability of manpower are the most important factors that help the success of the industry and its evolution. However, the possible migration of labor from one region to another if the wages were high and attractive. And the impact of labor in the industry is the extent provided in numerical terms and in terms of technical skill, and site selection industry in the areas of workers on the factory owners to provide spending in housing, water, electricity, schools and transport services and so on.
5 - Markets:
Each industry working for the provision of consumer needs of the population of the country in it first and then the people of neighboring countries and far. In order to continue production in the industry to be the conduct of this production to be used in the purchase price of sold raw materials, pay wages, and ensure profits for the owners of capital.
It must be taken into account: the size of the market, and the quality of the buyers, taking into account the tastes and to ensure the success of the marketing process, especially in consumer industries.
6 - Transportation and communications:
Modern industry relies heavily on the availability of means of transport, speed, and cost of licenses; to be able to obtain raw materials, fuel, or for the disposal of production. The raw materials and the market could were moving away from each other, and the centers of industry in many cases, making the reduction of transport costs, a necessary process to reduce production costs.
And thus became the means of transport, modern transportation, a mainstay of the development of industrial activities, particularly in a world of increasing competition to provide good products at a cheap price.
The most important industrial areas in the world:
The first region the United States
The area of the United States 8. 9 million km 2, and a population of about 265 million people. This consists of state of the fifty states collected federal union. The United States of America in the forefront of the industrialized world, where there are heavy industries in different areas including the most important of these areas:
1 - the East Coast.
2 - Great Lakes region.
3 - West Coast Region
1 - East Coast: This region is the most important industrial areas in the United States for the following reasons:
(A) The fact that the east coast urban centers by first solving the immigrants to this continent.
(B) the abundance of raw materials and the different driving forces in this region.
(C) the abundance of labor is concentrated in this region 90% of the population of the United States.
(D) Ease of internal transportation and development.
(E) Ease of contact with the outside world because it is located on the Atlantic Ocean makes it easy to transport from and to.
Among the most important industrial centers on the east coast (Baltimore, and Philadelphia), (New York, and Boston).
2 - Great Lakes Region: The most important industrial centers by: (Pittsburgh, Chicago, and Otroyt).
Western United States: The most important industrial centers in which: (San Francisco, and Los Angeles).
The second area to Western Europe
Europe is at the forefront of industrial and oldest of the continents and Ospgaha in the direction of modern industries especially the north-west of the continent. This is due to several factors including:
1 - the abundance of different raw materials.
2 - the abundance of the driving forces, - especially coal and hydropower, as well as to import oil from the Middle East and Africa - and use some of the European country such as Britain, France and atomic fuel.
3 - the abundance of trained manpower, which is the basis for many industries.
4 - and an abundance of capital and rising living standards.
5 - Ease of transportation and the occurrence of Europe on the Atlantic Ocean is the most important in commercial terms. This has helped mediate position between the continents of the world in the northern hemisphere, the ease of finding markets for industrial products outside the continent. States have adopted the European industry in its infancy on the colonies, one of the best markets for manufactures, and at the same time it was one of the most important raw material resources.
And can distinguish between three types of industrial areas in Europe, namely:
1 - industrial areas associated with coal: the areas and widespread stretches along the coal fields of the British Isles to the east of Europe, falls within these areas: the British Isles, southern Belgium and northern France, the region (Ruhr), (and good) (Luxemburg) (and Seles O .)
2 - industrial zones linked to the forces of water: there are in the northern and southern parts of Europe and depend on the generation of the driving forces of the rush of water to compensate for the shortage of coal. The most important of these areas: Southern Sweden, Norway, Austria, and north-west Spain, and the area (Pyrenees), (and Alps) and French as well as Switzerland and northern Italy.
3 - industrial areas are not linked to the source of local power sources, which are the major cities, capitals, as is the case in London, Paris, and European ports on the Mediterranean. And more areas on the adoption of these driving forces such as oil imported. The industrial areas associated with the coal fields of all the most important industrial areas, the most productive.
Despite the spread of modern industry in Europe in general, but France, Germany, Britain and more advanced than others on the continent. This addition to the diversity of industries and their development in the countries of Europe but there are certain items known by some European lands more than others; For example: famous Swiss manufacture watches, and Britain, textiles Sufism, and Germany in the ****llurgical industry, and France Batturat and cosmetics.
The third area of Japan
Japan consists of hundreds of islands scattered in the Pacific Ocean, and most important of these islands (Honshu, and Hokkaido, and Kyushu, and Shikoku).
The population of Japan about 132 million people. The mountainous nature of the Japanese islands in the poor agricultural production and livestock, as well as poor in mineral wealth. The watershed is owned by Japan's most important and relied upon in power generation and exploitation in the industry, with a share of Japan 9% of the total world production of hydropower.
This has helped Japan to offer industrial and an abundance of cheap skilled labor, in addition to a broad market, particularly in East Asia.
The most important industrial centers in Japan: the area (Tokyo, Ozaka, and Najoba), North (Kyushu), and West (Henshaw), South (Hokkaido).
The most important Japanese industries: textile industry different, then the iron, steel, and associated engineering industries, many shipbuilding as an industry which is the first in its industry in the world, then comes the chemical, electrical, and electronic.
Region IV of Russia and Ukraine
These two countries where inherited status industrialized former Soviet Union, and was concentrated by the major industrial regions Kmentgueta: (Moscow) (the Leningrad), and the mountains (Ural).
Site of the Islamic University – Madina