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  1. #1
    مشرفة الصف الثالث
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    افتراضي reaserch about the dangers in the Environment / للصف السابع / انجليزي


    One oil spill environmental problems]] environmental problems are no chemical or qualitative change in the biological and environmental components Alaahiaúah that this change is outside the field of oscillations of any of these components so as to lead to an imbalance in the balance of nature. Problems associated with environmental pollution, mainly, also known as persistent as any solid, liquid or gaseous, and any microbes or particles lead to the increase or decrease in any of the natural environmental components.
    Contents [hide]
    A depletion of natural resources
    2 solid waste
    3 water pollution
    3.1 water pollutants
    3.2 Specifications of safe water for human use
    4 air pollution
    4.1 Air Pollutants
    5 radioactive contamination
    6 depletion of the ozone
    7 pollution of the seas and oceans
    8 noise
    9 acid rain (Acid rain)
    10 contamination of the optical
    11 contamination of soil
    12 global warming
    13 Desertification
    14 References and sources
    [Edit] Tabieihalmassadr depletion of natural resources: is a set of materials and energy in the environment. Include sources of natural geological sources, ie sources of origin Gioluigi can be extracted from the earth, including:
    A forest in California (USA) forests Tabieihmassadr of the most important sources of energy such as oil, coal and oil shale ... And others.
    XXXXls such as iron, copper, aluminum, lead, zinc, gold, silver and others.
    Industrial rocks and include sand, gravel, limestone, granite, gypsum ... And others. In addition to groundwater as an important source of life.
    Most of the geological sources are the sources of non-renewable (Nonrenewable resources); as the rate of consumption exceeds the rate of formation, with the exception of groundwater for the possibility of recurrence of rain water, and XXXXls are being recycled (Recycling) which can be re-manufactured (industrially renewed). In addition to geothermal energy as a renewable source of energy. And the intervention of these sources in all types of industry that you know, from the tiles and ending with medicine, Registry, lead you use, consists of the sources of geological, electrical appliances, computers and military industries and space vehicles ...., all of which come from sources of geological, but we do not understand the relationship between the sources of geological product, which are natural sources of biological resources (Biological Resources) include the wealth of plant and animal, are these sources Renewable (Renewable) the possibility of availability in the environment as a result of regenerating naturally. It also includes natural sources of renewable energy sources (Renewable Energy Resources), such as solar and wind power and energy of water.

    Are non-renewable resources depletion in the world, and therefore resorted to the countries of the world to find solutions, such as the development of specific technologies able to use available resources efficiently, and reliance on renewable energy sources.

    Are also subjected to the depletion of renewable resources, especially plant and animal, soil and XXXXls, it is caused by consumption of these sources at a rate higher than the rate of natural or artificial regeneration. One of the manifestations of attrition as follows:

    Depletion of biodiversity and includes; depletion of vegetation cover, and the depletion of wild animals. Fastnzaf vegetation produced by over-cutting, overgrazing, and pollution, natural disasters, fires, volcanoes, drought, and the depletion of wild animals Vintage by overfishing, pollution and the elimination of wildlife habitat, and others.
    To protect the biodiversity of attrition, I turned a lot of countries in the world to the establishment of protected areas for wildlife protection and animal and plant habitats, such as nature reserves, in Jordan there are six reserves administered by the Royal Society for the Protection of Nature RSCN, including reserves: Shaumari and Dana and Mujib, blue and others.
    Tree trunk Qtattabaladhafah to pass laws at the local level, such as the Environment Protection Act the Jordan in 1995 and the Law on Environmental Impact Assessment (Environmental impact assessment law) for development projects; The establishment of a project for mining ore is in a certain area, will be subject to this project to the analytical study of the pros and cons to being a approval according to the Law on Environmental Impact Assessment in force in the country.
    Distracting sources Tabieihoani inability to recycle XXXXllic mineral products such s copper, iron and other full; any that in each recycling process can not be returned a hundred percent.
    Altsahroho set of processes that lead to low productivity of any ecosystem, and produced by natural factors such as the entrapment of rain, high temperature or low, or human-induced, such as overgrazing, deforestation and the continued urban sprawl and the use of different kinds of pollutants. To combat desertification, the text of the Jordanian Environment Protection Act of 1995 to control the sources of soil pollution and control and monitoring of soil erosion and desertification, and to take action to stop this and urban policy based on environmental grounds.
    [Edit] Waste Asalbhttrah organisms in the ecosystem of natural residues and their secretions, and the system of environmental re-used efficiently within the course and clear; as the analyzers to analyze raw materials a simple return to the soil Vtstkhaddmha plants, and this is called self-purification. The waste delivered by the human, and as a result of increasing population and rising standard of living and industrial development, agricultural and others, led to increased quantities, in addition to the production qualities dangerous to the environment, making the process of collection, transportation and disposal in all countries of the world are important for the health and the environment. The Law on Environmental Protection to Jordan in 1995 on the definition of solid waste materials as a removable and the owner wishes to get rid of them, so that it is collected, transported and processed in the interest of the community.
    [Edit] Main article water pollution: water pollution [edit] water pollutants
    Water
    Besdo water contaminated with iron. Include the following pollutants:
    Waste of oxygen-consuming organisms, including pathogens and organic matter from food and plant waste and crop residues and waste water (domestic, industrial and agricultural). These materials are biodegradable, it can be oxidized in the water, so-called oxygen-consuming materials. Result in consumption of dissolved oxygen in water drained, and thus the death of aquatic strangled, such as fish and microorganisms, the air at the same time increase of micro-organisms anaerobic in the water which analyzes the organic materials anaerobically and produces toxic gases and odors resulting from NH3, H2S.
    Organic and toxic substances, including oil, and juice in landfill sites. Water pollution affects the oil-water seas and oceans due to leakage of vessels laden with oil from oil wells or the sea. The juice Vtsab groundwater due to leakage from the landfill and dumps her candidacy through the rocks and then they reach groundwater.
    Toxic substances, some of these non-organic material source rocks, as the liberated Baltjoah carry running water to lakes or rivers, or permeate the pores of the soil and rock contaminating groundwater. However, the human accelerated mining and processing operations in the liberation of toxic substances from the rocks at a rate thousands of times compared to natural processes. In addition to adding factories, hospitals, farms, and other toxic substances to the ecosystem.
    [Edit] Specifications for the use of potable water Alepeshrataatdmn specifications of water a group of physical properties and chemical and biological weapons. Include the physical properties of color, taste, smell and total dissolved solids (TDS), and suspended solids (TSS), temperature and turbidity, and others. While the chemical properties include; pH (pH) and alkaline and acidic and brackish and dissolved oxygen, and heavy elements, and others. The biological characteristics include the types of microorganisms such as fecal coliforms.



    The specifications include the Jordanian drinking water and human uses on the physical properties and chemical and biological weapons. The tables (1-1) and (1-2) some of what is stated in the specifications of Jordan water safe to drink.
    [Edit] Air Pollution Main article: Alhoaaather pollution air pollution air pollution in a city
    [Edit] Alhoamusdr pollutants of air pollution and air
    Air pollutants are classified into primary and secondary:
    Basic contaminants
    1. Oxides include Alkrbunoakasid nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides SO3, SO2) SOx), and produces these gases from the combustion of fossil fuels.
    Air pollution on Sheikh Zayed Road in Dubai 2. Volatile organic materials, including [[Alheidrokrbonehkalmithan vehicles and gasoline, and produces exhaust in cars; as Alcarburatr and evaporate from the fuel tanks of vehicles, as well as factories producing detergents, acids and bases.
    3. Outstanding vehicles and droplets, and the compounds are suspended in the air in the form of solids such as dust and microorganisms Altouselh and pollen, and heavy XXXXls such as lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic, sulfur, salts and salts of nitrates. The droplet is represented in the oil and pesticides.
    Secondary air pollutants, these pollutants are produced from the interaction of the basic air pollutants with each other or with other pollutants, or with the help of water, sunlight, and Alillkhan include (1), acid rain and ozone,
    The end,
    [Edit] radioactie contamination
    Gaman-ray radiation produced by atomic nuclei are: alpha (α) and beta (β) and gamma (γ); radiation and differ in their ability to penetrate objects, and gamma Volva weakened the most powerful and therefore most dangerous on the bodies of living organisms. And adds to the X-ray radiation (X) which is similar to gamma rays in their effect. And off the radiation from natural sources, including cosmic rays, radiation and the earth's crust and the self-radiation produced by water, air and food security, such as dairy and i40K i226Ra of food and water, and others. And also produced by human activities, particularly XXXXXXX explosions and XXXXXXX reactor accidents Khadth Chernobyl. Characterized by continuity of radioactive contaminants in the air-term survival in several months, and then fall to the ground and plants, food chains intervened, moving to the bodies of living organisms. The radiation affects living objects from the environment by breathing, accumulate in various organs, especially in the bones, causing disease and then cancer, infertility, and speed of the pyramid.
    [Edit] drain Alawzontantcher materials, chlorine, fluorine and carbon in the atmosphere to reach the stratospheric, where UV analysis and free atoms of chlorine and bromine ones, which are increasingly active chemical in the case of free, those associated with molecules of the ozone integral ozone oxides of chlorine and oxygen, leading to Astzaf ozone. The cause of erosion or depletion of the ozone hole, or to pollute the environment with chemicals that reach the atmosphere Bltriq the following:
    Oxides of nitrogen released from the exhausts of jet aircraft flying at high alttudes in the vicinity of Alstroatosevar, and rocket launchers and Awadamha.
    CFCs used in refrigeration equipment and air conditioning in Tosam medical instruments, and in XXXXl cleaning and drying, as well as in the mobilization of perfume bottles.
    Oxides of hydrogen from XXXXXXX explosions and experiences related to it.
    Vehicles that use halon in fire extinguishers as anti-fire.
    Chlorine compounds that arise as a result of the evaporation of sea water and volcanic eruptions.
    [Edit] Pollution of the Sea and Mahitatkhalal next thirty years, will host more than 6.3 billion people in the coastal corridor, which will clicking on the seam lines between land and sea. I have been seas and oceans to environmental changes as a result of two factors:
    Rates increasing concentrations of a number of articles and items in the marine environment for its lineage of origin (such as nitrogen)
    Find new materials were not aware of nature before, not even in the earlier stages of economic development (such as plastics).
    Pollution of seas and oceans:
    Wastewater.
    Medical supplies.
    XXXXXXX radiation.
    Pesticides and fertilizers.
    Chemical materials.
    Oil and its derivatives.
    Dynamite.
    Of solids.
    [Edit] Noise




    Qantas 747-400 landing aircraft reflect the close of the houses on the tarmac at Heathrow Airport, London, Angeltraaldaudhae are the voices of the continuity of votes is undesirable and usually occurs due to industrial progress. It sounds comes the source of the cities where inflation and population Azdiat activity of urban and industrial use of transport vehicles and as a result of piece it sounds cars and people and other sounds that annoy the rights and caused him to many diseases and are mostly a psychiatric illness affect the true rights and concentrations of industrial that are next to residential areas causing noise, and diseases affecting the rights:
    High blood Dgt
    The more aggressive to humans
    Strike
    Affect the hearing leads to damage of cells cochlea
    Even affects the thinking
    [Edit] acid rain (Acid rain)
    Taliqalmatar Acid rain is composed of water molecules interacting with carbon dioxide CO2 H2O (l) + CO2 (g) → H2CO3 (aq) acid can then be harder for corals to interact in the water is low concentrations of ions hydronium: 2H2O (l) + H2CO3 ( aq) ⇌ CO32-(aq) + 2H3O + (aq) acid rain caused by gases emitted from factories rights, and has a significant impact on vegetation and on animals and on the front Abannahalamaúah of Lamia, which causes pollution.
    [Edit] Aldoibaltlut light pollution discomfort resulting from non-natural lighting at night and the effects of artificial night lighting on fauna and fluorination and the family of fungi and environmental regulations, as well as fixed effects and suspected human health. Tabagtbagtaibgatabata
    Like the concept of pollution of the night sky, which is sometimes offset, the conept of a very modern light pollution, as it appeared in the eighties of the twentieth century saw the developments since then.
    City of Chicago at night. Chicago Association says statistics for the birds that about 100 million to 1 billion birds die each year because of collision Balbnayat majestic. The impact of this concept appeared jurisprudence astronomers in North America and the Europeans and the organizations that represent them (the French Society of Astronomy in France and in North America Darska ...), and other activists, worried about the rapid deterioration of the night environment, ecologists, planners, technicians and energy, doctors, academics, and Alanarien and agencies interested in sustainable development who worked on this new area.
    Chicks are attracted to birds such as puffins night lights near the nest. Not last the first attempt to fly has more than 10 seconds and it is threatened with death if not pick up their food from the sea. This explains the survival of the cliffs and isolated islands far from the lighting. Number Alpfon decreasing in Europe. Light pollution is a growing phenomenon of changes functional in ecosystems due to artificial lighting in the environment night and especially the negative impact is clear on the types of animal and plant and fungal task (such as insects, night (butterflies and Ghamdiat wings ...) and bats and Albermiat ...) even the integrity of the environmental scene in general.
    Bio-geographical level, this is a very recent phenomenon. For this reason and due to delayed awareness of this problem and the lack of budgets invested in this area, stay away from this risk control. The effects have not been studied carefully, as it did not include the research but some species especially birds.
    [Edit] soil pollution
    Different types of Alterbhalterbh (Soil) is a loose surface layer of the earth's crust which blend with the living organisms and products of decaying matter that exist at a depth of 50 to 100 cm. The soil consists of layers called Handles.
    Increasing pollution of water bodies steadily, raising questions about the vulnerability of fish by the pollution and dangerous eating human food of different fish, as well as to raise doubts about the true benefits of this important food source
    The city of St. Louis is the annual conference of the American scientific research to support AAAS. In the context of the activities of this conference, a damage of environmental pollution on fish, an important topic for discussion. It is known that the meat of fish may contain Tlut by the seas and oceans on the toxic chemicals such as mercury, for example. If you feed the baby in the womb of the mother to a large amount of this XXXXl, it harms the nervous system and affects the fetus in the worst conditions Balichoh congenital disease and physical disability after birth. But it is also known that fish retain a very small amount of mercury in their bodies, but the monitor foodstuffs U.S. FDA years ago wanted to be cautious and advised pregnant women not to eat fish more than twice per week, in the interest of the health of the fetus.
    [Edit] global warming
    Points capture the temperature of the Alerdhalaanbas warming is the phenomenon of rising temperature in the environment as a result of a change in the flow of thermal energy and the environment. These are often called this name to the phenomenon of global warming than normal. And the causes of this phenomenon on the ground level of any reason for the phenomenon of global warming is divided scientists to say that this phenomenon is a natural phenomenon and that the Earth's climate is witnessing a natural periods of hot and chilled cold citing this by the ice or cold somewhat between the 17 century and 18 of Europe. The solar radiation is the main source of energy on the surface of the earth, as it stems from the sun towards the earth is implemented through the gas atmosphere in the form of rays of visible short-wave, and X-ray thermal long-wave (infrared) and certain UV rays that can not be absorbed by ozone, Vimits surface Earth radiation hyphen to Faschen then, and the temperature is broadcast around the atmosphere in the form of near-surface temperature Faihtbs, not allowed to access or Alaavlat to the top, and re-broadcast to the ground, leading to increase the degree of the earth. Is beginning to feel the phenomenon of global warming since 1880, if the earth's atmosphere warmed by half a degree Celsius over the past century, and will increase one degree Celsius by the year 2040 AD is expected to rise some 3.2 ° C up to the year 2100. Cause of carbon dioxide by about 72% of the global warming almost every year adds the world's population is about 6 billion of this gas to the atmosphere. Came the term greenhouse of the similarity between what happens in Earth's atmosphere and what is going on in the greenhouse (plastic) used in agriculture, as the sun beats long waves the walls of these houses Vchea heat in the atmosphere of procedure, where the plant, Fathbs Gerdanha ray thermal short waves and prevent them from dropping out, because they do not Tzmha air to escape from the temperature rises than others.
    (Carbon dioxide))
    [Edit] Tsahraltsahr is subjected land degradation in arid and semi-arid and dry sub-humid, leading to the loss of plant life and biodiversity, and lead to the loss of topsoil and loss of the ability of land for agricultural production and support of animal life and human resources. Desertification affects the catastrophic impact on the economic situation of the country, as it leads to a loss of up to $ 40 billion annually in agricultural crops and increase their prices.
    Each year the world loses about 691 square kilometers of agricultural land as a result of the process of desertification, while about one third of the globe vulnerable to desertification in general. The impact of desertification on the African continent in particular, where the desert stretches along the north of Africa, almost. It also became extending south as it approached the equator by 60 km than it was 50 years, and in more than 100 country in the world is affected by almost one billion of the total population of the world's 6 billion people in the process of desertification of their lands; which force them to leave their farms and migrate to cities to earn a living.
    Desertification is the phenomenon of geographical animated, acquired the environment in which the properties of desert real, as a result of the ecological balance of natural, with no deterioration, and a wide range in all environments, wetlands, and sub-humid, dry, semi dry, and under the double impact of the changed circumstances shifts natural plant, through the encroachment of the desert steppe region, the encroachment of the territory of steppes towards the territory of the savannah, the encroachment of the savannah region in the territory of the forest.
    Is caused for the deterioration of ecological system, linked to piece the ability of resources, capacity, and if exceeded the exploitation of human resources capacity of, and have been exploited excessive and unregulated, the environment is exposed to deterioration, and becomes Mtssahrh Vtaatnaqs productivity of land, and unable production to meet the needs of human and animal food.
    [Edit] References and Massadraljmaah Jordan pollution control, Symposium on protection of water sources from pollution in Jordan, Amman, Jordan, 1990.
    Amireh, bs, Aedimentology and palaeogeography of the regressive and transgres - sive kurnub group (early cretaceous) of
    jordan, sedimentary geology.69 - 88, 1997.
    Abdul Kader Abed, Jaolodyh Jordan and the environment and water, Aljiulhieddin Jordanian publications, a series of scientific books 1, Amman, 2000.
    [
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  2. #2
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  4. #4
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