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  1. #1
    عضو مجتهد
    الحالة : سمو الطيبه غير متواجد حالياً
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    تاريخ التسجيل : 13-01-11
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    2nd أرجو ماتتجاهلو طلبي مالي غيركم


    السلام عليكم




    لو سمحتو أبي أي بحث من الفصل الثاني يتعلق بهالوحدين الثالثة أوالرابعه طالبين أخوي وأنا ماعرف اسوي بحوث انجليزي

    ابي بحث واحد من اي من هالوحدتين

    Ancient Worlds - 3

    4- whos smarter cats or dogs

    أرجو ماتتجاهلو طلبي مالي غيركم








  2. #2
    عضو مجتهد
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    افتراضي رد: أرجو ماتتجاهلو طلبي مالي غيركم


    ضروووووووووووووووووووووووووووووووووووووووووووووووو وووووري ابيه






  3. #3
    عضو مجتهد
    الحالة : سمو الطيبه غير متواجد حالياً
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    افتراضي رد: أرجو ماتتجاهلو طلبي مالي غيركم


    للللللللللللللللللللرفع ابي ردود ضروووري






  4. #4
    عضو مجتهد
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    افتراضي رد: أرجو ماتتجاهلو طلبي مالي غيركم


    لللللللللللللللللللللللللللللرفع






  5. #5
    مشرفه اللغه الانجليزيه
    المرحله الثانويه
    الصورة الرمزية تاكي
    الحالة : تاكي غير متواجد حالياً
    رقم العضوية : 3452
    تاريخ التسجيل : 17-02-08
    الدولة : N my lovely country UAE ..~
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    MY SMS:

    Everything is okay in the end. If it's not okay, then it's not the end

    افتراضي رد: أرجو ماتتجاهلو طلبي مالي غيركم


    اهلا

    يبت لج التقريرين جاهزين
    شوفي شو الانسب لج و بالتوفيق
    من رايي الثاني احسن
    =)

    Ancient Worlds


    Ancient civilizations are studied today to help us understand more about our worlds past and what has brought us to where we are today. Our findings have not only answered questions, but also bought us to ask more questions. Perhaps one of the most studied and yet least understood civilizations is the Ancient Egyptian Civilization. Many studies have been done one what is now left of their ruins. Ancient towns have left us with hieroglyphics, items that help us understand the way they lived, and even tombs.


    One of the keys to understanding the ancient civilization is the Rosetta Stone, which was discovered and helps us even today interpret the ancient writing of hieroglyphics. All of Egypt's history, religion, and beliefs are only some of the writings that are left. Some of the writings include proof that exotic plans did exist then that don't exist today. These writings have told the stories of all the kings and their rule. Gods were very prominent in this time and played a large role in the way people lived their lives. If it weren't for these writings, this civilization may have never been fully discovered. Not everyone was able to read and write hieroglyphics, there was a special school for children who were exceptional. The school would start for the child at about five to ten years of age. They would learn how vile the other occupations in the town really were. For example, the smith slaves over a hot furnace, and his hands were like crocodiles, and the mason who was achy and weary. Scribes seemed to have the better life among the people because they had the power over everyone. The actual power to read and write was more valuable than food, drink, and clothes. There is little evidence that women knew how to write. There was only one tomb where a woman had left a journal of her every day life. It is believed that only the wealthy women were able to read and write, but there was no place for them in the career world to do this. Scribes were so important because they were able to copy sacred texts into royal books of the Nether World into the walls of the tombs of kings and queens.


    From the hieroglyphics we learn about the average life of an Egyptian. Egyptian marriage wasn't always arranged, this was usually only done by royal family where a brother would marry a sister in an arranged marriage. On the other hand most marriages were done out of love; there is evidence of this in love poetry that has been found, which shows that there was genuine love. Most men were married by the age of twenty and the women were married by the age of fourteen. The actual marriage laws weren't complicated, there was really no state or church ceremony, they simply moved in together with a simple marriage contract. Divorce was just as easy, if the man was at fault then the woman was entitled to one third of the settlement, and if the woman was at fault she was still entitled to maintenance from her ex husband.


    Gods played a serious role in the everyday life of Egyptians, and this includes childbirth. A man and a woman would have a child to keep the family line going. Even though we call this civilization ancient, they understood the very same signs of pregnancy as we do today. They checked the pulse rate, the color of her eyes, and the frequency of her vomiting. They would pass water over wheat and barely; if barely sprouted then the mother would be blessed with a boy and if wheat sprouted then the child would be a girl, and if nothing came up then there would be no baby. The mothers often massaged themselves with an oil in order to take away some of the discomfort. Many procedures were taken to protect the mother and her child during the birth, the dwarf god and the hippo god were painted on the wall to protect the mother and her baby from evil spirits during the births, and spells were chanted.


    A child's life did not last very long before they became an adult and took on the family trade. A few dolls and evidence of sports were found in some of the ruins. This proves that the children played a little before being apprenticed into the family trade. Almost all children took on the family trade except for those select few who became scribes. There is actually only evidence of two schoolhouses that were probably used by the workers children, to learn how to read and write.


    The social system was actually very well defined. The Pharaoh was above everyone, he was considered a god, and after every pharaoh begins a new life with a new king. There was the Pharaoh and his family, and then the nobles, the priests, and the officials who helped the king keep order and advise him. There were then the lower priests, the artists and the soldiers, and then the peasants who worked the land and the slaves. The difference between a slave and a peasant was that the peasants worked the fertile land and the slaves worked in mines, on pylons and obelisks. Because the pharaoh didn't trust just anyone to build his tomb there were actually special villages for people to live in who were building his tomb. In return for working on his tomb he would feed, clothe, and house them. These people had a ten-day workweek and an eight our shift with only one day off.


    Holidays and festivals relieved these ten-day workweeks. Sometimes they celebrated the Nile, a new season, a coronation, and royal anniversaries. This gave the ordinary people a chance to enjoy their life a little. There were many fruits and meat, which was a rarity. It was a time of joy, spectacle prayer, and now and then a miracle. All these festivals were important, but the most important of them all was the Opet festival. This festival lasted twenty-seven days and involved giving out eleven thousand three hundred and forty one loaves of bread, three hundred and eighty five beer jugs, and eighty-five cakes. This whole festival actually centered around the journey of Amon Re his wife Mut and his son Khons.


    Appearances were very important to the Egyptians. Although some people believe that ancient civilizations were not as concerned with hygiene the way we are today, they are wrong. They washed their body and mouth everyday. They wouldn't use the Niles water without filtering it because snails laid their larvae in the water. They used what was called Natron to wash themselves. Vegetable oil, crocodile fat, cat fat, and hippo fat were used to stop the skin from drying up and to keep skin looking young. They used a deodorant everyday as well. Many people believe that the black eye paint that was worn was used as a fashion statement, but it was really used as a shade from the sun and to keep bugs away from their eyes. Fashion played a large role as well in the life of an Egyptian. The women for the most part wore tight figure fitting dresses that covered from the chests to the ankles. The men wore kilts, which went from the waist to the knees. The actual dress of the kingdom was far more complicated then the average everyday person. The elite wore wigs that were scented. And a pleated apron covered the kilts.


    The most important part of an Egyptians life was preparing for the life after death. This has been one of the many curiosities of the world. Amazing tombs have been found with many treasures inside, such as King Tut's tomb. His tomb held some of the most magnificent treasures. Many tombs were found with boats in them to prepare them for their journey through the afterlife. Anything that was held precious to the person was to be buried with them. Djoser's tomb had two thrones where he could sit and rule either Upper Egypt or Lower Egypt. Most tombs had an astronomical importance to them, suck as Khufu's Pyramid. That pyramid had ventilation shafts that were positioned so that the first star on Orion's Belt. The whole obsession with the Egyptians and life after death came from not only myths, but the fact that every new season there was a new life that arose out of death when the Nile flood. This death and rebirth lead the people to believe in life after death, so much that the bodies were kept in perfect condition after the person died, there was a procedure that was followed in order to mummify the person so they would be ready for their life to come. Cheops Pyramid was the largest building ever built in history, and is even one of the Seven Wonders of the World. It is still beyond our comprehension as to how they were able to build such a massive building.


    There are many different views as to how Cheops Pyramid was built, but no one actually knows the truth. This isn't just for that pyramid; it's for the whole civilization. We can only try to interpret what happened in that time period by some writings, structures, and tombs. Still today very little is known about the way these people lived and what they were surrounded by. The more findings that are discovered the more questions that are asked to solve the never-ending puzzle of our history.



    whose smarter cats or dogs



    We love cats and dogs equally and rarely compare the two, on anything, especially intelligence. But since there is always that question out there of which pet is smarter, we thought we’d explore it, just for fun.
    Dog people are certain that dogs are smarter because they are so easily trained and perform tasks for people. Cat people maintain that cats are smarter because they are their own boss and refuse to do things they don’t want to do. So who’s smarter ¬– the obedient dog or the independent cat?
    It’s nearly impossible to compare dogs and cats because they have different natures. Dogs are hard wired to be social creatures, and therefore have “social intelligence” says author and professor Jeffrey Masson, Ph.D., who takes issue with the notion of intelligence of any being. He believes each species has the intelligence it needs to live in its own world. It benefits dogs to interact and cooperate with others, because in the wild it takes a pack of dogs working together to bring down a larger animal for dinner. Masson says there is a certain prejudice for dog intelligence because their social nature is more like our nature.
    Dog and Cat Intelligence is Based on Their Separate Natures



    Dog people place a high value on the social nature of dogs, because it serves us so well. Dogs are willing to learn to do what we want them to do.
    A cat’s nature is completely different. They are independent creatures. A cat doesn’t need the help of another cat to snag a rodent or bird, which is just enough for one cat’s tummy, so it doesn’t make sense for them to hunt together. Cat people place a high value on cats because their independence makes them so easy to live with and care for.
    People judge dog intelligence based on training
    If you’re basing intelligence on the ability to learn commands, the dog clearly wins. But it’s an unfair test because although cats can and do learn commands, and can even perform tricks, they are generally not all that interested. A human has to work harder at motivating a cat.
    It’s no different with people. If you send two kids to dance class, one who dreams of becoming a dancer and the other who thinks dancing is ridiculous, the first will participate and learn the skills, while the other will sit and watch with disdain, or find something else to do to pass the time. So which kid is smarter? Obviously, this is no measure of intelligence.
    People Judge Cat Intelligence Based on Independent Thinking



    If you’re basing intelligence on the ability to be an independent thinker, doing as one chooses, whether or not it meets the approval of others, the cat clearly wins. But that too is an unfair test, because to a dog, being separated, physically, mentally or emotionally, from the people or dogs he considers his pack, tops his list of "Truly Awful Things", followed closely by doing something that does not please his owner.
    Again, it’s the same with people. There are some who cherish their individuality, who are not concerned with what others think of them, and would be very happy living alone, going out for social interaction as it suits them. Others thrive on being with people and would go stir crazy alone, and therefore strive to fit in with the people they care about. Which type of person is smarter? Again, this is no measure of intelligence!
    The truth is, dogs are much smarter at being dogs, and cats are way smarter at being cats.





    التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة تاكي ; 13-02-06 الساعة 02:09 AM

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